[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) could reverse the gains of antiretroviral rollout. To ensure that current first-line therapies remain effective, TDR levels in recently infected treatment-naive patients need to be monitored. A literature review and data mining exercise was carried out to determine the temporal trends in TDR in South Africa. In addition, 72 sequences from seroconvertors identified from Africa Centre's 2010 HIV surveillance round were also examined for TDR. Publicly available data on TDR were retrieved from GenBank, curated in RegaDB, and analyzed using the Calibrated Population Resistance Program. There was no evidence of TDR from the 2010 rural KwaZulu Natal samples. Ten datasets with a total of 1618 sequences collected between 2000 and 2010 were pooled to provide a temporal analysis of TDR. The year with the highest TDR rate was 2002 [6.67%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.09-13.79%; n=6/90]. After 2002, TDR levels returned to <5% (WHO low-level threshold) and showed no statistically significant increase in the interval between 2002 and 2010. The most common mutations were associated with NNRTI resistance, K103N, followed by Y181C and Y188C/L. Five sequences had multiple resistance mutations associated with NNRTI resistance. There is no evidence of TDR in rural KwaZulu-Natal. TDR levels in South Africa have remained low following a downward trend since 2003. Continuous vigilance in monitoring of TDR is needed as more patients are initiated and maintained onto antiretroviral therapy.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 01/2012; 28(6):558-65. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drug-resistant (DR) HIV emerges during combined antiretroviral treatment (cART), creating concern about widespread transmission of DR-HIV as cART is expanded in resource-limited countries. The aim of this study was to determine the predominant HIV-1 subtypes and prevalence of transmitted DR mutations among antiretroviral-naïve patients in Iran.
To monitor transmission of DR HIV, a threshold surveillance based on the world health organization (WHO) guidelines was implemented in Iran.
For this HIVDR threshold surveillance study, blood samples were collected from 50 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected patients. Antiretroviral-resistant mutations were determined by sequencing HIV-1 protease, reverse transcriptase and integrase regions. The HIV-1 subtype was determined by sequencing the p17 and C2-V5 regions of the gag and env genes, respectively.
Phylogenetic analyses of the sequenced regions revealed that 45 (95.7%) of 47 samples that were successfully obtained were CRF35_AD. The remaining two cases were subtype B (2.1%) and CRF01_AE (2.1%). Consistent results were obtained also from Env and Gag sequences. Regarding prevalence of transmitted DR viruses, two cases were found to harbor reverse transcriptase-inhibitor-resistant mutations (4.3%). In addition, although not in the WHO list for surveillance of transmitted mutations, 13 minor protease-inhibitor-resistant mutations listed in the International AIDS Society-USA panel of drug resistance mutations were found. No DR mutations were detected in the integrase region.
Our study clarified that CRF35_AD is the major subtype among HIV-1-infected patients in Iran. According to the WHO categorization method of HIVDR threshold survey, the prevalence of transmitted drug resistant HIV in Iran was estimated as moderate (5-15%).
PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e61864. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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