Which surgical approach for rectocele? A multicentric report from Italian coloproctologists.
ABSTRACT The most effective surgical technique for rectocele has not yet been clearly established. A retrospective multicentric study was carried out to compare the long-term results of 3 endorectal techniques (Block, Sarles and stapled) and the perineal levatorplasty, alone and in association, in a series of patients with symptomatic rectocele. From January 1992 to December 1999, 2212 patients with defecation disorders were referred to 5 Italian coloproctology units. An anterior rectocele was clinically diagnosed in 1045 patients and confirmed with defecography. On the basis of clinical and radiological parameters, 317 patients (312 women; mean age, 52.4+/-20.1 years) were selected for surgery. Group 1 consisted of 141 patients (136 women; mean age, 50.4+/-18.8 years) who were submitted to endorectal operations. Group 2 consisted of 126 women (mean age, 52.5+/-19.7 years) who received perineal levatorplasty. Finally, 50 women (mean age, 54.3+/-21.9 years) in Group 3 received endorectal operations associated with perineal levatorplasty. A total of 269 patients were followed postoperatively (mean period, 24.2+/-3.1 months, 27.5+/-5.4 months and, 22.8+/-2.8 months, respectively) with the same questionnaire and clinical examination. Three months after surgery, a defecography examination and anorectal manometry were performed in 136 and 132 patients, respectively. Operative time, hospital stay and time to return to work were significantly higher in Group 3 (p<0.001). There was one death in Group 3 due to severe sepsis. Main postoperative complications were: in Group 1, hemorrhage (7.8%, all Sarles), dehiscence of the endorectal suture (5.0%, all Block), distal rectal stenosis (2.1%, 1 stapled, 2 block), and rectovaginal fistula (1.4%, all Sarles); in Group 2, delayed healing of the perineal wound (16.4%); in Group 3 delayed healing of the perineal wound (22.0%), hemorrhage (6%, all Sarles), dehiscence (4.0%), stenosis (2.0%). 17.3% of patients of Group 2 and 22.5% of Group 3 complained of dyspareunia. Postoperative defecography showed a complete absence of the rectocele in 44.1% of patients and reduction of size in the others, without significant differences among the three groups. Manometric pattern was not significantly modified by surgery. Significant symptoms recurred in 5.9% of the patients in Group 1, 6.4% in Group 2, and 5.0% in Group 3. Perineal levatorplasty did not significantly improve obstructed defecation, as it did not allow to excise the rectal mucosal prolapse, and was followed by an high incidence of delayed healing of the perineal wound and dyspareunia. Sarles procedure achieved better control of mucosal prolapse but carried a higher complication rate compared to the others. The association of the perineal levatorplasty with an endorectal technique required significantly longer operative time, and led to a longer hospital stay and time to return to work. In conclusion, the investigated techniques showed different patterns of postoperative complications: bleeding after Sarles, dehiscence after Block, dyspareunia after perineoplasty and fatal gangrene after stapled, but non of them showed a clear superiority over the others in term of clinical or functional results 2 years after surgery.
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ABSTRACT: The second part of the Consensus Statement of the Italian Association of Hospital Gastroenterologists and Italian Society of Colo-Rectal Surgery reports on the treatment of chronic constipation and obstructed defecation. There is no evidence that increasing fluid intake and physical activity can relieve the symptoms of chronic constipation. Patients with normal-transit constipation should increase their fibre intake through their diet or with commercial fibre. Osmotic laxatives may be effective in patients who do not respond to fibre supplements. Stimulant laxatives should be reserved for patients who do not respond to osmotic laxatives. Controlled trials have shown that serotoninergic enterokinetic agents, such as prucalopride, and prosecretory agents, such as lubiprostone, are effective in the treatment of patients with chronic constipation. Surgery is sometimes necessary. Total colectomy with ileorectostomy may be considered in patients with slow-transit constipation and inertia coli who are resistant to medical therapy and who do not have defecatory disorders, generalised motility disorders or psychological disorders. Randomised controlled trials have established the efficacy of rehabilitative treatment in dys-synergic defecation. Many surgical procedures may be used to treat obstructed defecation in patients with acquired anatomical defects, but none is considered to be the gold standard. Surgery should be reserved for selected patients with an impaired quality of life. Obstructed defecation is often associated with pelvic organ prolapse. Surgery with the placement of prostheses is replacing fascial surgery in the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse, but the efficacy and safety of such procedures have not yet been established.World Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2012; 18(36):4994-5013. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There are no clear recommended imaging guidelines for the assessment of patients presenting primarily with obstructed defecation syndrome and defecation difficulty. The gold standard has always been the defecating proctogram which may require a rather poorly tolerated extended technique involving high-radiation exposure in young women which includes cystography, vaginography, small bowel opacification, and occasional peritoneography. The development of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging has obviated many of these extended techniques and may be supplemented by novel ultrasonographic methods including dynamic transperineal sonography, real-time 3D translabial ultrasound and 3D dynamic echodefecography. Patients potentially suitable for surgical treatment display a multiplicity of pelvic floor and perineal soft-tissue anomalies where one pathology (such as rectocele or enterocele) are considered dominant. Despite the introduction of recent stapled and robotic technologies, there is a dual dialog concerning the functional outcome of these procedures. Imaging and surgical algorithms for these patients are provided.Abdominal Imaging 03/2012; · 1.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to compare the results of a transanal repair with those of a transvaginal levatorplasty and to determine the long-term clinical outcomes according to the change in the depth of the rectocele after the procedure. Of 50 women who underwent a rectocele repair from March 2005 to February 2007, 26 women (group A) received a transanal repair, and 24 (group B) received a transvaginal repair with or without levatorplasty. At 12 months after the procedures, 45 (group A/B, 22/23 women) among the 50 women completed physiologic studies, including anal manometry and defecography, and clinical-outcome measurements. The variations of the clinical outcomes with changes in the depth of the rectocele were also evaluated in 42 women (group A/B, 20/22) at the median follow-up of 50 months. On the defecographic findings, the postoperative depth of the rectocele decreased significantly in both groups (group A vs. B, 1.91 ± 0.20 vs. 2.25 ± 0.46, P = 0.040). At 12 months after surgery, 17 women in each group (group A/B, 77/75%) reported improvement of their symptoms. However, only 11 and 13 women (group A/B, 55/59%) of groups A and B, respectively, maintained their improvement at the median follow-up of 50 months. Better results were reported in patients with a greater change in the depth of their rectocele (≥4 cm) after the procedure (P = 0.001) In both procedures, clinical outcomes might become progressively worse as the length of the follow-up is increased.Journal of the Korean Society of Coloproctology 06/2012; 28(3):140-4.