Article

The prognostic significance of skip mediastinal lymphatic metastasis in resected non-small cell lung cancer.

European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.67). 04/2002; 21(3):595. DOI: 10.1016/S1010-7940(01)01135-6
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    ABSTRACT: Although many clinical studies on skip lymphatic metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer have been reported, the risk factors for skip lymphatic metastasis are still controversy and debatable. This study investigated, by multivariate logistic regression analysis, the clinical features of skip metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes (N(2)) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We collected the clinicopathological data of 256 pN(2)-NSCLC patients who underwent lobectomy plus systemic lymph node dissection in Fujian Medical University Union Hospital. The cases in the present study were divided into two groups: skip metastasis (N(2) skip+) and non- skip metastasis (N(2) skip-). A retrospective analysis of clinical pathological features of two groups was performed. To determine an independent factor, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify possible risk factors. A total of 256 pN(2)-NSCLC patients were recruited. The analysis results showed that gender, pathologic types, surgery, pleural involvement, smoking history, age, tumor stages, and differentiation were not statistical significant factors impacting on skip metastasis in pN(2)-NSCLC (P>0.05), whereas tumor size was an independent factor for skip metastasis (P=0.02). The rate of skip lymphatic metastasis increases in pN(2)-NSCLC patients, in accompany with an increased tumor size.
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    ABSTRACT: Radical segmentectomy has been performed for small-sized non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, underestimation of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in the absence of hilar or interlobar metastasis (skip N2) affects surgical strategy. Our aim was to investigate preoperative and intraoperative predictors of skip N2 in clinical stage (c-stage) IA NSCLC. From 1998 to 2011, 279 patients (155 men and 124 women) with c-stage IA NSCLC (230 pN0, 17 pN1, 12 skip N2, 20 non-skip N2) underwent systematic lobectomy (R0 resection) at our institute. We compared preoperative serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 19 fragment, sialyl Lewis X (SLX), and pre- and intraoperative clinicopathological features of pN0 and skip N2 patients. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to distinguish between the two patient groups. The 5-year survival rate of skip N2 patients was 78.6%, higher than that of non-skip N2 patients (44.9%), and not significantly different than that of pN0 (86.7%) or pN1 patients (82.4%). The mean serum SLX concentration in skip N2 patients (28.0 U/ml) was elevated compared to that in pN0 patients (22.9 U/ml). In ROC analysis of SLX, the area under the curve was 0.710, and the optimal cut-off value was 21.4 U/ml (sensitivity, 91.7%; specificity, 51.7%). In multivariate analysis, SLX was an independent predictor of skip N2 in patients with c-stage IA NSCLC (odds ratio, 9.43; p = 0.006). Skip N2 metastasis is common in patients with c-stage IA NSCLC with high serum SLX, and lobectomy with complete dissection of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes should remain the standard surgical procedure for these cases.
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    ABSTRACT: In 1978, Naruke et al. proposed an anatomical map that included numbered lymph node stations, which then became widely used for nodal dissection. In 1997, Mountain and Dresler published a new map, which is now favored by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society. Using these maps, regional nodal dissection has been universally performed in lung cancer surgery. Clear evidence regarding the survival benefit of lymph node dissection for lung cancer is lacking. However, lobectomy with lymph node dissection continues to be a standard surgical procedure for lung cancer because lymph node dissection is an important investigative process in staging patients. Over the last decade, the extent of nodal dissection for lung cancer has changed due to the increasing number of early detected lung cancers made possible by the recent development of the CT scanner. This manuscript describes the history, present strategy, and future perspectives of lymph node dissection for lung cancer.
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