Effects of menopause on intraindividual changes in serum lipids, blood pressure, and body weight–the Chin‐Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort study

Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 10020, Taiwan, ROC.
Atherosclerosis (Impact Factor: 3.99). 05/2002; 161(2):409-15. DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9150(01)00644-X
Source: PubMed


In Taiwan, the Chin-Shan Community Cardiovascular Cohort (CCCC) was assessed prospectively to determine whether the changes in cardiovascular risk factors for women age 45--54 years are due to menopause. The average paired percentage changes that occurred between baseline (1990-1991) and follow-up (4 years later) in fasting serum lipids were compared in three groups of women including groups of 59 and 224 who were pre- and postmenopausal, respectively, and a group of 118 who had spontaneously stopped menstruating. Postmenopausal women had the least gain in body mass index (BMI), whereas, mainly premenopausal women had increased systolic blood pressure (P<0.05). All women had elevated total cholesterol (TC) levels, with the greatest elevation in women transitioning into menopause (P<0.001). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels increased before and during the transition to menopause, but decreased after menopause (P<0.01). Age had significant association with changes in TC, triglyceride (TG) and LDL-C levels, whereas BMI had significant association with changes in TG, LDL-C, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (P<0.05). After controlling for age and BMI, only differences in TC remained significant, with the greatest gain in women who stopped menstruating (12.9%) followed by pre- (6.5%) and postmenopausal women (4.8%). Changes in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and TG and HDL-C levels were not significantly different, but HDL-C levels declined between 11.5 and 14.7% in all groups. This study suggests an unfavorable effect of menopause on lipid metabolism, especially on the TC level, which was predominantly elevated during the transition to menopause. The decline of HDL-C is of concern.

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Available from: Ta-Chen Su, Sep 15, 2014
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    • "Adjustment for known influencing factors was done, but factors such as pollution, stress, economic factors and genetic factors were unknown. Literature indicates that blood lipids levels seem to be higher in postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women [41]. Information concerning menopausal status in women was not available. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Blood lipids are cardiovascular health indicators. High LDL cholesterol values and/or high total cholesterol (TC)/HDL cholesterol ratios are positively related with cardiovascular mortality. Evidence suggests that a Mediterranean diet can reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is often measured by the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). However, the association between the Mediterranean diet and blood lipid profiles seems still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the MDS, its different components and blood lipid profiles. Methods A sample of 506 women and 707 men (aged 18–75 years) was recruited. Three-day diet records were used to calculate the MDS. Blood samples were analyzed for serum TC, LDL and HDL cholesterol. ANOVA was used to analyze blood lipids across the MDS tertiles. A multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the associations between the MDS, its components and blood lipids, adjusted for several confounders. All analyses were stratified by gender. Results Few gender-specific associations were found between the MDS, its components and blood lipids. Only in men, the total MDS was negatively related with LDL cholesterol and the ratio TC/HDL cholesterol while positively with HDL cholesterol. In women, respectively two (MUFA/SFA and cereals) and in men three (fruits & nuts, meat and alcohol) of the nine MDS components were related with blood lipids. Conclusions Analyses investigating the relationship between the MDS, its components and blood lipid profiles indicate only limited influence of the Mediterranean diet on blood lipids. More associations were detected in men compared to women.
    Nutrition Journal 09/2014; 13(1):88. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-13-88 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    • "Therefore, lipid profiles may start to change before menopause [11]. Since nearly all studies define postmenopausal status based on amenorrhea without measurements of female sex hormones [7], it is possible that these changes have been underestimated. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to quantitatively measure changes in lipids and lipoproteins during perimenopause and to identify variables related to these changes. Among women who had three regular health evaluations over a span of 2-4 years, 34 women remained in the premenopausal state, 34 premenopausal women transitioned to the postmenopausal state, and 36 postmenopausal women were enrolled. The menopausal state was determined not only by a history of amenorrhea but also by levels of female sex hormones. Yearly changes in lipids were calculated using a linear regression of the three measurements. The transition from premenopause to postmenopause was associated with increased total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels by 7.4 ± 8.0 mg/dL (4.2 ± 4.9%) and 6.9 ± 6.5 mg/dL (6.8 ± 7.0%) over one year, resulting in an elevation of 19.6 ± 22.6 mg/dL (10.9 ± 13.0%) and 18.9 ± 19.5 mg/dL (18.6 ± 20.3%), respectively, during perimenopause. There were no changes observed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Body weight, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides did not change in any of the three groups. In all women, changes in both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were associated with changes in follicle stimulating hormone (r = 0.40, p < 0.001 and r = 0.38, p < 0.001, respectively). Changes in triglycerides were associated with changes in body weight (r = 0.28, p = 0.005). During perimenopause, total and LDL cholesterol levels increase and these changes in cholesterol are mainly dependent on changes in female sex hormones.
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 03/2011; 26(1):47-53. DOI:10.3904/kjim.2011.26.1.47 · 1.43 Impact Factor

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