Hu-Surf5 is included within the Surfeit locus, a cluster of six genes originally identified in mouse. In the present study, we have cloned and characterized the Hu-Surf5 gene and its mRNA multiple transcripts. Comparison of the most abundant cDNA and genomic sequence shows that the Hu-Surf5 is spread over a region of approximately 7.5 kb and consists of five exons separated by four introns. The nucleotide sequence of the genomic region flanking the 3'-end of the Hu-Surf5 gene revealed the presence of a processed pseudogene of human ribosomal protein L21 followed by Hu-Surf6 gene. Only 110 bp separate the transcription start site of Hu-Surf5 and Hu-Surf3/L7a gene and the transcription direction is divergent. Earlier studies defined the 110 bp region essential for promoter activity of Hu-Surf3/L7a. Here, we show that this region stimulates transcription with a slightly different efficiency in both directions. The bidirectional promoter lacks an identifiable TATA box and is characterized by a CpG island that extends through the first exon into the first intron of both genes. These features are characteristic of housekeeping genes and are consistent with the wide tissue distribution observed for Hu-Surf5 expression. Hu-Surf5 encodes three different transcripts, Surf-5a, Surf-5b, and Surf-5c, which result from alternative splicing. Two protein products, SURF-5A and SURF-5B have been characterized. Production of chimaeras between the full-length SURF-5A or SURF-5B and the green fluorescent protein (GFP) allowed to localize both proteins in the cytoplasm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seaweeds are of economic and ecological importance, and for centuries have been used in food, phycocolloid, and pharmaceutical industries. With the advance development of computational biology and bioinformatics, the study of seaweeds is entering a new revolutionary phase. Molecular genetic study and gene discovery in seaweeds will greatly facilitate the process of deciphering the physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology of seaweeds, leading to genetic improvements by means of gene modification and genetic engineering. This article reviews the approaches, recent developments and future in molecular genetic study and gene discovery in seaweeds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report here the creation of a constitutive knockout mouse for SURF1, a gene encoding one of the assembly proteins involved in the formation of cytochrome c oxidase (COX). Loss-of-function mutations of SURF1 cause Leigh syndrome associated with an isolated and generalized COX deficiency in humans. The murine phenotype is characterized by the following hallmarks: (1) high post-implantation embryonic lethality, affecting approximately 90% of the Surf1(-/-) individuals; (2) early-onset mortality of post-natal individuals; (3) highly significant deficit in muscle strength and motor performance; (4) profound and isolated defect of COX activity in skeletal muscle and liver, and, to a lesser extent, heart and brain; (5) morphological abnormalities of skeletal muscle, characterized by reduced histochemical reaction to COX and mitochondrial proliferation; (6) no obvious abnormalities in brain morphology, reflecting the virtual absence of overt neurological symptoms. These results indicate a function for murine Surf1 protein (Surf1p) specifically related to COX and recapitulate, at least in part, the human phenotype. This is the first mammalian model for a nuclear disease gene of a human mitochondrial disorder. Our model constitutes a useful tool to investigate the function of Surf1p, help understand the pathogenesis of Surf1p deficiency in vivo, and evaluate the efficacy of treatment.
Human Molecular Genetics 03/2003; 12(4):399-413. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddg038 · 6.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel transcriptional units (TUs) are EST-supported transcribed features not corresponding to known genes. Unconventional gene pairs (UGPs) are pairs of genes and/or TUs sharing exon-to-exon cis-antisense overlaps or putative bidirectional promoters. Computational TU and UGP discovery followed by manual curation was performed in the entire published 34.9-Mb human chromosome 22 euchromatic sequence. Novel TUs (n = 517) were as abundant as known genes (n = 492) and typically did not have nonprimate DNA and protein homologies. One hundred seventy-one (33%) of TUs, but only 13 (3%) of genes, both lacked nonprimate conservation and localized to gaps in the human-mouse BLASTZ alignment. Novel TUs were richer in exonic primate-specific interspersed repetitive elements (P = 0.001) and were more likely to rely on splice junctions provided by them, than were known genes: 19% of spliced TUs, versus 5% of spliced genes, had a splice site within a primate-specific repeat. Hence, novel TUs and known genes may represent different portions of the transcriptome. Two hundred nine (21%) of chromosome 22 transcripts participated in 77 cis-antisense and 42 promoter-sharing UGPs. Transcripts involved simultaneously in both UGP types were more common than was expected (P = 0.01). UGPs were nonrandomly distributed along the sequence: 89 (75%) clustered in distinct regions, the sum of which equaled 4.4 Mb (<13% of the chromosome). Eighty (67%) of the UGPs possessed significant locus structure differences between primates and rodents. Since some TUs may be functional noncoding transcripts and since the cis-regulatory potential of UGPs is well recognized, TUs and UGPs specific to the primate lineage may contribute to the genomic basis for primate-specific phenotypes.
Genome Research 01/2006; 16(1):45-54. DOI:10.1101/gr.3883606 · 14.63 Impact Factor
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