Decreased perioxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene expression was correlated with poor prognosis in patients with lung cancer
ABSTRACT Activation of the nuclear hormone receptor perioxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in several human cancers. We have hypothesized that PPARgamma mRNA levels could be predictors of the differentiation and survival of lung cancer. The study included 77 lung cancer cases. The mRNA levels were quantified by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using LightCycler. The PPARgamma mRNA levels were decreased in tumor tissues from lung cancer (0.579 +/- 1.255) compared to the normal adjacent lung tissues (4.191 +/- 2.868) (P = 0.0001). No significant difference in PPARgamma mRNA levels was found among gender, age, and pathological subtype. The PPARgamma mRNA levels were higher in tumor tissues from higher differentiated lung cancer. The NSCLC patients with low PPARgamma mRNA expression (< 0.5) had significantly worse survival than the patients without low PPARgamma mRNA levels (P = 0.0438, Breslow-Gehan-Wilcoxon test; P = 0.0168, Cox's proportional-Hazards regression model). Thus, PPARgamma mRNA levels may serve as a prognostic marker in lung cancer. Using the LightCycler RT-PCR assay, the determination of PPARgamma mRNA levels might provide a potential marker for treatment of lung cancer by PPARgamma agonist. However, further studies and a longer follow up are needed to confirm the impact of PPARgamma in the biological behavior of the tumor.
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- "TZDs inhibit the growth of colon cancer cell lines in vitro    and in xenograft models  as well as growth of breast cancer    and prostate cancer cells   . In lung cancer, decreased expression of PPARγ was correlated with poor prognosis in samples from human lung tumors . Genetic variants in the PPARγ gene have also been identified that are associated with a decreased risk for lung cancer . "
ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that plays an important role in the control of gene expression linked to a variety of physiological processes, including cancer. Ligands for PPARγ include naturally occurring fatty acids and the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs. Activation of PPARγ in a variety of cancer cells leads to inhibition of growth, decreased invasiveness, reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines, and promotion of a more differentiated phenotype. However, systemic activation of PPARγ has been reported to be protumorigenic in some in vitro systems and in vivo models. Here, we review the available data that implicate PPARγ in lung carcinogenesis and highlight the challenges of targeting PPARγ in lung cancer treatments.PPAR Research 08/2012; 2012:362085. DOI:10.1155/2012/362085
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- "In contrast to the conflicting data on the role of PPARb/d in cancer prevention and enhancement, the evidence is more uniform and compelling in favour of a role for PPARg in the treatment of lung cancer. In this regard, decreased expression of PPARg has been associated with poor prognosis in lung cancer patients (Sasaki et al., 2002) and activating PPARg by either endogenous or synthetic agonists was found to inhibit growth of human lung cancer cells (Tsubouchi et al., 2000). Transgenic mice that over-expressed PPARg in their lungs were less susceptible to the development of lung tumours (Bren- Mattison et al., 2008). "
ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, function as transcription factors and modulators of gene expression. These actions allow PPARs to regulate a variety of biological processes and to play a significant role in several diseases and conditions. The current literature describes frequently opposing and paradoxical roles for the three PPAR isotypes, PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ, in cancer. While some studies have implicated PPARs in the promotion and development of cancer, others, in contrast, have presented evidence for a protective role for these receptors against cancer. In some tissues, the expression level of these receptors and/or their activation correlates with a positive outcome against cancer, while, in other tissue types, their expression and activation have the opposite effect. These disparate findings raise the possibility of (i) PPAR receptor-independent effects, including effects on receptors other than PPARs by the utilized ligands; (ii) cancer stage-specific effect; and/or (iii) differences in essential ligand-related pharmacokinetic considerations. In this review, we highlight the latest available studies on the role of the various PPAR isotypes in cancer in several major organs and present challenges as well as promising opportunities in the field.British Journal of Pharmacology 03/2011; 164(1):68-82. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01383.x
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- "TZDs exhibit in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects against many types of cancers, including lung cancer  . Analysis of human lung tumors has reported that decreased expression of PPARγ is correlated with a poor prognosis , and expression of PPARγ as detected by immunohistochemistry was more frequently detected in well-differentiated adenocarcinomas compared with poorly "
ABSTRACT: Work from our laboratory and others has demonstrated that activation of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) inhibits transformed growth of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines in vitro and in vivo. We have demonstrated that activation of PPARgamma promotes epithelial differentiation of NSCLC by increasing expression of E-cadherin, as well as inhibiting expression of COX-2 and nuclear factor-kappaB. The Snail family of transcription factors, which includes Snail (Snail1), Slug (Snail2), and ZEB1, is an important regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, as well as cell survival. The goal of this study was to determine whether the biological responses to rosiglitazone, a member of the thiazolidinedione family of PPARgamma activators, are mediated through the regulation of Snail family members. Our results indicate that, in two independent NSCLC cell lines, rosiglitazone specifically decreased expression of Snail, with no significant effect on either Slug or ZEB1. Suppression of Snail using short hairpin RNA silencing mimicked the effects of PPARgamma activation, in inhibiting anchorage-independent growth, promoting acinar formation in three-dimensional culture, and inhibiting invasiveness. This was associated with the increased expression of E-cadherin and decreased expression of COX-2 and matrix metaloproteinases. Conversely, overexpression of Snail blocked the biological responses to rosiglitazone, increasing anchorage-independent growth, invasiveness, and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The suppression of Snail expression by rosiglitazone seemed to be independent of GSK-3 signaling but was rather mediated through suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity. These findings suggest that selective regulation of Snail may be critical in mediating the antitumorigenic effects of PPARgamma activators.Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 03/2010; 12(3):224-34. DOI:10.1593/neo.91638