The impact of rigidity and water exchange on the relaxivity of a dendritic MRI contrast agent.
ABSTRACT Variable-temperature, multiple magnetic field (17)O NMR, EPR and variable-temperature (1)H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) measurement techniques have been applied to Gadomer 17, a new dendritic contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. The macromolecule bears 24 Gd(dota)-monoamide chelates (dota=N,N',N",N"'-tetracarboxymethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane) attached to a lysine-based dendrimer. (17)O NMR and (1)H NMRD data were analysed simultaneously by incorporating the Lipari-Szabó approach for the description of rotational dynamics. The water exchange rate k(298)(ex)was found to be (1.0 +/- 0.1) x 10(6) s(-1), a value similar to those measured for other Gd(dota)-monoamide complexes, and the activation parameters DeltaH++ =24.7 +/- 1.3 kJ mol(-1) and DeltaS++ = -47.4 +/- 0.2 JK(-1) mol(-1). The internal flexibility of the macromolecule is characterised by the Lipari-Szabó order parameter S(2)=0.5 and a local rotational correlation time tau(298)(l)= 760 ps, whereas the global rotational correlation time of the dendrimer is much longer, tau(298)(g)=3050 ps. The analysis of proton relaxivities reveals that, beside slow water exchange, internal flexibility is an important limiting factor for imaging magnetic fields. Electronic relaxation, though faster than in similar, but monomeric, Gd(III) chelates, does not limit proton relaxivity of this contrast agent (r(1)=16.5mM(-1)s(-1) at 298 K and 20 MHz). This analysis provides direct clues for the design of high-efficiency contrast agents.
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ABSTRACT: Polypropyleneimines (PPIs) functionalized by glycerol-based entities are prepared and characterized by diffusion-ordered spectroscopy NMR. Showing low cytotoxicity against MRC5 fibroblasts, their encapsulation capacities of gadolinium complexes was evaluated. T(1) measurements were performed to determine the relaxivity of the encapsulated gadopentetate dimeglumine (GdBOPTA) in dendrimers of fourth and fifth generation (GD-PPI-4 and GD-PPI-5). Comparison of the GdBOPTA relaxivity and the relaxivity of GdBOPTA-loaded dendrimers showed a slight increase of the gadolinium chelate relaxivity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A:, 2012.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 08/2012; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful imaging modality that is often coupled with paramagnetic contrast agents based on gadolinium to enhance sensitivity and image quality. Responsive contrast agents are key to furthering the diagnostic potential of MRI, both to provide anatomical information and to discern biochemical activity. Recent design of responsive gadolinium-based T(1) agents has made interesting progress, with the development of novel complexes which sense their chemical environment through changes in the coordination of water molecules, the molecular tumbling time or the number of metal centres. Particular promising design strategies include the use of multimeric systems, and the development of dual imaging probes.Current opinion in chemical biology 11/2012; · 8.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report a molecular design that provides an intravenously injectable organic radical contrast agent (ORCA) for which the molecular (1)H water relaxivity (r(1)) is ca. 5 mM(-1) s(-1). The ORCA is based on spirocyclohexyl nitroxide radicals and poly(ethylene glycol) chains conjugated to a fourth-generation polypropylenimine dendrimer scaffold. The metal-free ORCA has a long shelf life and provides selectively enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in mice for over 1 h.Journal of the American Chemical Society 09/2012; 134(38):15724-7. · 10.68 Impact Factor