The impact of rigidity and water exchange on the relaxivity of a dendritic MRI contrast agent.
ABSTRACT Variable-temperature, multiple magnetic field (17)O NMR, EPR and variable-temperature (1)H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) measurement techniques have been applied to Gadomer 17, a new dendritic contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. The macromolecule bears 24 Gd(dota)-monoamide chelates (dota=N,N',N",N"'-tetracarboxymethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane) attached to a lysine-based dendrimer. (17)O NMR and (1)H NMRD data were analysed simultaneously by incorporating the Lipari-Szabó approach for the description of rotational dynamics. The water exchange rate k(298)(ex)was found to be (1.0 +/- 0.1) x 10(6) s(-1), a value similar to those measured for other Gd(dota)-monoamide complexes, and the activation parameters DeltaH++ =24.7 +/- 1.3 kJ mol(-1) and DeltaS++ = -47.4 +/- 0.2 JK(-1) mol(-1). The internal flexibility of the macromolecule is characterised by the Lipari-Szabó order parameter S(2)=0.5 and a local rotational correlation time tau(298)(l)= 760 ps, whereas the global rotational correlation time of the dendrimer is much longer, tau(298)(g)=3050 ps. The analysis of proton relaxivities reveals that, beside slow water exchange, internal flexibility is an important limiting factor for imaging magnetic fields. Electronic relaxation, though faster than in similar, but monomeric, Gd(III) chelates, does not limit proton relaxivity of this contrast agent (r(1)=16.5mM(-1)s(-1) at 298 K and 20 MHz). This analysis provides direct clues for the design of high-efficiency contrast agents.
Article: Influence of molecular parameters and increasing magnetic field strength on relaxivity of gadolinium- and manganese-based T1 contrast agents.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Simulations were performed to understand the relative contributions of molecular parameters to longitudinal (r(1)) and transverse (r(2)) relaxivity as a function of applied field, and to obtain theoretical relaxivity maxima over a range of fields to appreciate what relaxivities can be achieved experimentally. The field-dependent relaxivities of a panel of gadolinium and manganese complexes with different molecular parameters, water exchange rates, rotational correlation times, hydration state, etc. were measured to confirm that measured relaxivities were consistent with theory. The design tenets previously stressed for optimizing r(1) at low fields (very slow rotational motion; chelate immobilized by protein binding; optimized water exchange rate) do not apply at higher fields. At 1.5 T and higher fields, an intermediate rotational correlation time is desired (0.5-4 ns), while water exchange rate is not as critical to achieving a high r(1). For targeted applications it is recommended to tether a multimer of metal chelates to a protein-targeting group via a long flexible linker to decouple the slow motion of the protein from the water(s) bound to the metal ions. Per ion relaxivities of 80, 45, and 18 mM(-1) s(-1) at 1.5, 3 and 9.4 T, respectively, are feasible for Gd(3+) and Mn(2+) complexes.Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging 01/2009; 4(2):89-100. · 3.33 Impact Factor
Bioconjugate Chemistry 16(1):3-8. · 4.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Polypropyleneimines (PPIs) functionalized by glycerol-based entities are prepared and characterized by diffusion-ordered spectroscopy NMR. Showing low cytotoxicity against MRC5 fibroblasts, their encapsulation capacities of gadolinium complexes was evaluated. T(1) measurements were performed to determine the relaxivity of the encapsulated gadopentetate dimeglumine (GdBOPTA) in dendrimers of fourth and fifth generation (GD-PPI-4 and GD-PPI-5). Comparison of the GdBOPTA relaxivity and the relaxivity of GdBOPTA-loaded dendrimers showed a slight increase of the gadolinium chelate relaxivity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A:, 2012.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 08/2012; · 2.63 Impact Factor