The Impact of Rigidity and Water Exchange on the Relaxivity of a Dendritic MRI Contrast Agent

Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, EPFL-BCH, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
Chemistry (Impact Factor: 5.73). 04/2002; 8(5):1040-8. DOI: 10.1002/1521-3765(20020301)8:53.0.CO;2-D
Source: PubMed


Variable-temperature, multiple magnetic field (17)O NMR, EPR and variable-temperature (1)H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) measurement techniques have been applied to Gadomer 17, a new dendritic contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. The macromolecule bears 24 Gd(dota)-monoamide chelates (dota=N,N',N",N"'-tetracarboxymethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane) attached to a lysine-based dendrimer. (17)O NMR and (1)H NMRD data were analysed simultaneously by incorporating the Lipari-Szabó approach for the description of rotational dynamics. The water exchange rate k(298)(ex)was found to be (1.0 +/- 0.1) x 10(6) s(-1), a value similar to those measured for other Gd(dota)-monoamide complexes, and the activation parameters DeltaH++ =24.7 +/- 1.3 kJ mol(-1) and DeltaS++ = -47.4 +/- 0.2 JK(-1) mol(-1). The internal flexibility of the macromolecule is characterised by the Lipari-Szabó order parameter S(2)=0.5 and a local rotational correlation time tau(298)(l)= 760 ps, whereas the global rotational correlation time of the dendrimer is much longer, tau(298)(g)=3050 ps. The analysis of proton relaxivities reveals that, beside slow water exchange, internal flexibility is an important limiting factor for imaging magnetic fields. Electronic relaxation, though faster than in similar, but monomeric, Gd(III) chelates, does not limit proton relaxivity of this contrast agent (r(1)=16.5mM(-1)s(-1) at 298 K and 20 MHz). This analysis provides direct clues for the design of high-efficiency contrast agents.

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    • "MRI Nanoplatforms (at 20 MHz). r 1 (mM 21 s 21 ) References Gd-TREN-bis-HOPO-TAM-CO 2 H 7.3 Pierre et al. 2006 [70] Clathrin triskelia-Gd-DTPA-ITC 16 This work Gadomer 17 16.5 Nicolle et al. 2002 [71] "
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    • "The relaxivity of Gd chelates bonded to these dendrimers is more than 4 times greater than Omniscan™. The increased relaxivity is due to a decrease of the rotational correlation time of the Gd-dendrimer complex (Bryant et al 1999; Nicolle et al 2002; Laus et al 2005; Rudovsky et al 2006). For contrast agents such as these molecules, increased relaxivity is one of the most important measures of the effectiveness of the contrast agent. "
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