Variable-temperature, multiple magnetic field (17)O NMR, EPR and variable-temperature (1)H nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) measurement techniques have been applied to Gadomer 17, a new dendritic contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. The macromolecule bears 24 Gd(dota)-monoamide chelates (dota=N,N',N",N"'-tetracarboxymethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane) attached to a lysine-based dendrimer. (17)O NMR and (1)H NMRD data were analysed simultaneously by incorporating the Lipari-Szabó approach for the description of rotational dynamics. The water exchange rate k(298)(ex)was found to be (1.0 +/- 0.1) x 10(6) s(-1), a value similar to those measured for other Gd(dota)-monoamide complexes, and the activation parameters DeltaH++ =24.7 +/- 1.3 kJ mol(-1) and DeltaS++ = -47.4 +/- 0.2 JK(-1) mol(-1). The internal flexibility of the macromolecule is characterised by the Lipari-Szabó order parameter S(2)=0.5 and a local rotational correlation time tau(298)(l)= 760 ps, whereas the global rotational correlation time of the dendrimer is much longer, tau(298)(g)=3050 ps. The analysis of proton relaxivities reveals that, beside slow water exchange, internal flexibility is an important limiting factor for imaging magnetic fields. Electronic relaxation, though faster than in similar, but monomeric, Gd(III) chelates, does not limit proton relaxivity of this contrast agent (r(1)=16.5mM(-1)s(-1) at 298 K and 20 MHz). This analysis provides direct clues for the design of high-efficiency contrast agents.
"MRI Nanoplatforms (at 20 MHz). r 1 (mM 21 s 21 ) References Gd-TREN-bis-HOPO-TAM-CO 2 H 7.3 Pierre et al. 2006  Clathrin triskelia-Gd-DTPA-ITC 16 This work Gadomer 17 16.5 Nicolle et al. 2002  "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has high spatial resolution, but low sensitivity for visualization of molecular targets in the central nervous system (CNS). Our goal was to develop a new MRI method with the potential for non-invasive molecular brain imaging. We herein introduce new bio-nanotechnology approaches for designing CNS contrast media based on the ubiquitous clathrin cell protein.
The first approach utilizes three-legged clathrin triskelia modified to carry 81 gadolinium chelates. The second approach uses clathrin cages self-assembled from triskelia and designed to carry 432 gadolinium chelates. Clathrin triskelia and cages were characterized by size, structure, protein concentration, and chelate and gadolinium contents. Relaxivity was evaluated at 0.47 T. A series of studies were conducted to ascertain whether fluorescent-tagged clathrin nanoplatforms could cross the blood brain barriers (BBB) unaided following intranasal, intravenous, and intraperitoneal routes of administration. Clathrin nanoparticles can be constituted as triskelia (18.5 nm in size), and as cages assembled from them (55 nm). The mean chelate: clathrin heavy chain molar ratio was 27.04±4.8: 1 for triskelia, and 4.2±1.04: 1 for cages. Triskelia had ionic relaxivity of 16 mM(-1) s(-1), and molecular relaxivity of 1,166 mM(-1) s(-1), while cages had ionic relaxivity of 81 mM(-1) s(-1) and molecular relaxivity of 31,512 mM(-1) s(-1). Thus, cages exhibited 20 times higher ionic relaxivity and 8,000-fold greater molecular relaxivity than gadopentetate dimeglumine. Clathrin nanoplatforms modified with fluorescent tags were able to cross or bypass the BBB without enhancements following intravenous, intraperitoneal and intranasal administration in rats.
Use of clathrin triskelia and cages as carriers of CNS contrast media represents a new approach. This new biocompatible protein-based nanotechnology demonstrated suitable physicochemical properties to warrant further in vivo imaging and drug delivery studies. Significantly, both nanotransporters crossed and/or bypassed the BBB without enhancers. Thus, clathrin nanoplatforms could be an appealing alternative to existing CNS bio-nanotechnologies.
PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5):e35821. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0035821 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"The relaxivity of Gd chelates bonded to these dendrimers is more than 4 times greater than Omniscan™. The increased relaxivity is due to a decrease of the rotational correlation time of the Gd-dendrimer complex (Bryant et al 1999; Nicolle et al 2002; Laus et al 2005; Rudovsky et al 2006). For contrast agents such as these molecules, increased relaxivity is one of the most important measures of the effectiveness of the contrast agent. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A target-specific MRI contrast agent for tumor cells expressing high affinity folate receptor was synthesized using generation five (G5) ofpolyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer. Surface modified dendrimer was functionalized for targeting with folic acid (FA) and the remaining terminal primary amines of the dendrimer were conjugated with the bifunctional NCS-DOTA chelator that forms stable complexes with gadolinium (Gd III). Dendrimer-DOTA conjugates were then complexed with GdCl3 followed by ICP-OES as well as MRI measurement of their longitudinal relaxivity (T1 s(-1) mM(-1)) of water. In xenograft tumors established in immunodeficient (SCID) mice with KB human epithelial cancer cells expressing folate receptor (FAR), the 3D MRI results showed specific and statistically significant signal enhancement in tumors generated with targeted Gd(III)-DOTA-G5-FA compared with signal generated by non-targeted Gd(III)-DOTA-G5 contrast nanoparticle. The targeted dendrimer contrast nanoparticles infiltrated tumor and were retained in tumor cells up to 48 hours post-injection of targeted contrast nanoparticle. The presence of folic acid on the dendrimer resulted in specific delivery of the nanoparticle to tissues and xenograft tumor cells expressing folate receptor in vivo. We present the specificity of the dendrimer nanoparticles for targeted cancer imaging with the prolonged clearance time compared with the current clinically approved gadodiamide (Omniscan) contrast agent. Potential application of this approach may include determination of the folate receptor status of tumors and monitoring of drug therapy.
International Journal of Nanomedicine 02/2008; 3(2):201-10. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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