Hyperploidy induced by drugs that inhibit formation of microtubule promotes chromosome instability.
ABSTRACT Antimicrotubule drugs (AMDs), such as taxol and vincristine, are the most important addition to the chemotherapeutic armamentarium against human cancers. It has been shown that prolonged AMD treatment induces hyperploidy in G1-checkpoint-defective cancer cells and that these hyperploid cells subsequently undergo apoptosis. However, a fraction of these hyperploid cells are able to survive the prolonged mitotic stress and resume cell-cycle progression.
We established hyperploid clones that escaped from cell death after AMD treatment from two glioma cell lines, U251MG and U87MG. Subtractive comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis revealed that clones derived from U87MG mainly had chromosome number changes, but that those from U251MG showed both numerical and structural chromosomal changes. Furthermore, numerous aberrations identified in U251MG clones were remarkably chromosome-specific, which may have been due to clonal selection for cells that have an advantage in growth and/or survival. All clones derived from both cell lines had abnormalities in chromosome segregation, and karyotypes of clones were more heterogeneous than those of parental cells, suggesting that cells having a higher chromosome number are subject to asymmetric chromosome segregation, resulting in a heterogeneous karyotype. All clones derived from U87MG and U251MG increased both centric and acentromeric micronuclei, suggesting the presence of chromosome structural abnormality.
AMD treatment induces hyperploid formation and chromosome instability in checkpoint-deficient cancer cells.
Article: Aneuploidy, the primary cause of the multilateral genomic instability of neoplastic and preneoplastic cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cancers have a clonal origin, yet their chromosomes and genes are non-clonal or heterogeneous due to an inherent genomic instability. However, the cause of this genomic instability is still debated. One theory postulates that mutations in genes that are involved in DNA repair and in chromosome segregation are the primary causes of this instability. But there are neither consistent correlations nor is there functional proof for the mutation theory. Here we propose aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes, as the primary cause of the genomic instability of neoplastic and preneoplastic cells. Aneuploidy destabilizes the karyotype and thus the species, independent of mutation, because it corrupts highly conserved teams of proteins that segregate, synthesize and repair chromosomes. Likewise it destabilizes genes. The theory explains 12 of 12 specific features of genomic instability: (1) Mutagenic and non-mutagenic carcinogens induce genomic instability via aneuploidy. (2) Aneuploidy coincides and segregates with preneoplastic and neoplastic genomic instability. (3) Phenotypes of genomically unstable cells change and even revert at high rates, compared to those of diploid cells, via aneuploidy-catalyzed chromosome rearrangements. (4) Idiosyncratic features of cancers, like immortality and drug-resistance, derive from subspecies within the 'polyphyletic' diversity of individual cancers. (5) Instability is proportional to the degree of aneuploidy. (6) Multilateral chromosomal and genetic instabilities typically coincide, because aneuploidy corrupts multiple targets simultaneously. (7) Gene mutation is common, but neither consistent nor clonal in cancer cells as predicted by the aneuploidy theory. (8) Cancers fall into a near-diploid (2 N) class of low instability, a near 1.5 N class of high instability, or a near 3 N class of very high instability, because aneuploid fitness is maximized either by minimally unstable karyotypes or by maximally unstable, but adaptable karyotypes. (9) Dominant phenotypes, because of aneuploid genotypes. (10) Uncertain developmental phenotypes of Down and other aneuploidy syndromes, because supply-sensitive, diploid programs are destabilized by products from aneuploid genes supplied at abnormal concentrations; the maternal age-bias for Down's would reflect age-dependent defects of the spindle apparatus of oocytes. (11) Non-selective phenotypes, e.g., metastasis, because of linkage with selective phenotypes on the same chromosomes. (12) The target, induction of genomic instability, is several 1000-fold bigger than gene mutation, because it is entire chromosomes. The mutation theory explains only a few of these features. We conclude that the transition of stable diploid to unstable aneuploid cell species is the primary cause of preneoplastic and neoplastic genomic instability and of cancer, and that mutations are secondary.International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 03/2004; 56(2):65-81. · 3.51 Impact Factor