Frameshift mutations of human gastrin receptor gene (hGARE) in gastrointestinal cancers with microsatellite instability.

Division of Gastroenterology, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano-Milan, Italy.
Laboratory Investigation (Impact Factor: 3.83). 04/2002; 82(3):265-71. DOI: 10.1038/labinvest.3780420
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Gastrointestinal tumors with DNA mismatch repair (MMR) defects show microsatellite instability (MSI) and harbor frameshift mutations in coding mononucleotide repeats of cancer-related genes (targets). We assessed MSI status in 233 sporadic gastrointestinal tumors. We classified as MSI-H (high-frequency microsatellite instability) 15 (10%) of 150 colorectal cancers and 13 (16%) of 83 gastric cancers. We searched for frameshift mutations in a coding poly(T)(8) tract within the gastrin receptor gene (hGARE), which has a potential role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. To this purpose, we screened 43 unstable tumors (including 15 hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer cases previously classified as MSI-H), 98 stable tumors, as well as 3 MMR-deficient and 4 MMR-proficient gastrointestinal cancer cell lines. We found mutations in 8 (19%) of the 43 MSI-H tumors but in none of the 98 stable cancers. hGARE mutation frequency was similar in gastric (23%) and colorectal cancers, including sporadic (13%) and hereditary (20%) cases. All mutated tumors proved to harbor frameshift mutations in other cancer-related genes that are considered as targets in MSI tumorigenesis. The MMR-deficient and gastrin-sensitive LoVo colorectal cancer cells also showed a hGARE heterozygous frameshift mutation, but expressed only the mutated allele. All detected mutations can be predicted to generate a truncated protein carrying amino acid changes. On the basis of genetic findings, we propose hGARE as a new candidate target gene in MSI tumorigenesis. Functional studies are warranted to elucidate the mechanism by which the hGARE mutation might contribute to gastrointestinal carcinogenesis.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Microsatellite instability (MSI) is detected in a wide variety of tumors. It is thought that mismatch repair gene mutation or inactivation is the major cause of MSI. Microsatellite sequences are predominantly distributed in intergenic or intronic DNA. However, MSI is found in the exonic sequences of some genes, causing their inactivation. In this report, we searched GenBank for candidate genes containing potential MSI sequences in exonic regions. Twenty seven target genes were selected for MSI analysis. Instability was found in 70% of these genes (14/20) with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Interestingly, no instability was detected in mononucleotide repeats in genes or in intergenic sequences. We conclude that instability of mononucleotide repeats is a rare event in HNSCC. High MSI phenotype in young HNSCC patients is limited to noncoding regions only. MSI percentage in HNSCC tumor is closely related to the repeat type, repeat location and patient's age.
    Gene 07/2012; 506(1):195-201. · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer risk is increased in Lynch syndrome (LS) patients with mismatch repair gene defects predisposing to colonic and extracolonic cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI). However, the frequency of MSI pancreatic cancers has never been ascertained in consecutive, unselected clinical series, and their contribution to the sporadic and inherited burden of pancreatic cancer remains to be established. Aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of MSI in surgically resected pancreatic cancers in a multicentric, retrospective study, and to assess the occurrence of pancreatic cancer in LS. MS-status was screened by a panel of 5 mononucleotide repeats (Bat26, Bat25, NR-21, NR-24 and NR-27) in 338 consecutive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), resected at two Italian and one German referral centres. The personal history of pancreatic cancer was assessed in an independent set of 58 probands with LS and in 138 first degree relatives who had cancers. Only one PDAC (0.3%) showed MSI. This was a medullary type cancer, with hMLH1-deficiency, and no identified germ-line mutation but methylation of hMLH1. Pancreatic cancer occurred in 5 (2.5%) LS patients. Histological sampling was available for 2 cases, revealing PDAC in one case and an ampullary cancer in the other one. MSI prevalence is negligible in sporadic, resected PDAC. Differently, the prevalence of pancreatic cancer is 2.5% in LS patients, and cancers other than PDAC may be encountered in this setting. Surveillance for pancreatic cancer should be advised in LS mutation carriers at referral centers.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e46002. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC), the third most commonly diagnosed type of cancer in men and women worldwide is recognized as a complex multi-pathway disease, an observation sustained by the fact that histologically identical tumors may have different outcome, including various response to therapy. Therefore, particularly in early and intermediate stage (stages II and III, respectively) CRC, there is a compelling need for biomarkers helpful of selecting patients with aggressive disease that might benefit from adjuvant and targeted therapy. Histopathological examination shows that likely other solid tumors the development and progression of human CRC is not only determined by genetically abnormal cells, but also by intricate interactions between malignant cells and the surrounding microenvironment. This has led to reconsider the features of tumor microenvironment as potential predictive and prognostic biomarkers. Among the histopathological biomarkers, tumor budding (i.e., the presence of individual cells and small clusters of tumor cells at the tumor invasive front) has received much recent attention, particularly in the setting of CRC. Although its acceptance as a reportable factor has been held back by a lack of uniformity with respect to qualitative and quantitative aspects, tumor budding is now considered as an independent adverse prognostic factor in CRC that may allow for stratification of patients into risk categories more meaningful than those defined by tumor-node-metastasis staging alone, and also potentially guide treatment decisions, especially in T2-T3 N0 (stage II) CRCs.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2012; 18(45):6532-6. · 2.43 Impact Factor