Frameshift mutations of human gastrin receptor gene (hGARE) in gastrointestinal cancers with microsatellite instability.
ABSTRACT Gastrointestinal tumors with DNA mismatch repair (MMR) defects show microsatellite instability (MSI) and harbor frameshift mutations in coding mononucleotide repeats of cancer-related genes (targets). We assessed MSI status in 233 sporadic gastrointestinal tumors. We classified as MSI-H (high-frequency microsatellite instability) 15 (10%) of 150 colorectal cancers and 13 (16%) of 83 gastric cancers. We searched for frameshift mutations in a coding poly(T)(8) tract within the gastrin receptor gene (hGARE), which has a potential role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. To this purpose, we screened 43 unstable tumors (including 15 hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer cases previously classified as MSI-H), 98 stable tumors, as well as 3 MMR-deficient and 4 MMR-proficient gastrointestinal cancer cell lines. We found mutations in 8 (19%) of the 43 MSI-H tumors but in none of the 98 stable cancers. hGARE mutation frequency was similar in gastric (23%) and colorectal cancers, including sporadic (13%) and hereditary (20%) cases. All mutated tumors proved to harbor frameshift mutations in other cancer-related genes that are considered as targets in MSI tumorigenesis. The MMR-deficient and gastrin-sensitive LoVo colorectal cancer cells also showed a hGARE heterozygous frameshift mutation, but expressed only the mutated allele. All detected mutations can be predicted to generate a truncated protein carrying amino acid changes. On the basis of genetic findings, we propose hGARE as a new candidate target gene in MSI tumorigenesis. Functional studies are warranted to elucidate the mechanism by which the hGARE mutation might contribute to gastrointestinal carcinogenesis.
- SourceAvailable from: cancerres.aacrjournals.org[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mismatch repair-deficient cancers are characterized by widespread insertions and deletions in microsatellite sequences, including those comprised of mononucleotide repeats. Such alterations have been observed in relatively short mononucleotide tracts in several genes and often are interpreted to indicate that the affected genes normally act as tumor suppressors. To aid in the interpretation of such changes, we have systematically assessed their frequency within transcribed regions of the genome that are unlikely to play a tumorigenic role. The advent of the complete human genomic sequences of chromosome 22 allowed us to select 29 genes for this analysis, spaced at approximately 1-Mb intervals. Each of the selected genes had an (A)(8) or a (G)(8) tract deep within intronic sequences that was not included in the processed transcript. Surprisingly, we found that there was substantial variation in the prevalence of mutations among these tracts. Some tracts were altered in < 5% of the mismatch repair-deficient cancers studied, whereas other tracts were altered in nearly half of the cancers. In particular, (G)(8) tracts were considerably more prone to mutation than (A)(8) tracts, and the sequences or chromatin structures surrounding the mononucleotide tracts seemed to affect their mutability significantly.Cancer Research 05/2001; 61(9):3801-5. · 8.65 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Somatic mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes have been observed in sporadic tumors as well as cell lines and xenografts derived from such tumors implicating genetic defects of mismatch repair genes in the development of such tumors. However, the proportion of sporadic tumors in which mismatch repair genes have been inactivated has not been determined accurately. We have analyzed 66 sporadic colorectal tumors for the expression of hMLH1 by immunohistochemistry and identified 4 tumors that do not express hMLH1. These four colorectal tumors, a colon tumor cell line (SW48) and an endometrial tumor cell line (AN3CA), did not express hMLH1, despite the absence of mutations in its coding sequence. Cytosine methylation of the hMLH1 promoter region was found in these four colorectal tumors, whereas cytosine methylation of the hMLH1 promoter region was absent in adjacent normal tissue or in nine tumors that expressed hMLH1. In addition, cytosine methylation of the hMLH1 promoter region was observed in the SW48 and AN3CA cell lines that do not express hMLH1 but not in four tumor cell lines known to express hMLH1 mRNA. Our data indicate that DNA methylation is likely to be a common mode of mismatch repair gene inactivation in sporadic tumors.Cancer Research 04/1997; 57(5):808-11. · 8.65 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Microsatellite (MS) instability occurs in tumors with DNA mismatch repair (MMR) deficiencies but is typically absent in adjacent normal tissue. However, MS mutations have been observed in normal tissues from rare individuals with congenital MMR deficiencies. Autopsy tissues from a 4-year-old with congenital MMR deficiency (MLH1-/-) were examined for MS mutations. Insertions and deletions were observed in CA-repeat MS loci. Approximately 0.26 to 1.4 mutations per MS locus per cell were estimated to be present in normal heart, lymph node, kidney, and bladder epithelium. These findings illustrate that phenotypically normal MMR-deficient cells commonly accumulate MS mutations. Loss of MMR and the accumulation of some MS mutations may occur early in MMR-deficient tumor progression, even before a gatekeeper mutation.Cancer Research 07/2001; 61(11):4541-4. · 8.65 Impact Factor