2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment induces c-Fos expression in the forebrain of the Long-Evans rat.
ABSTRACT 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants. In the present study, we examined c-Fos expression in the central nervous system (CNS) after administration of a lethal dose of TCDD to the adult Long-Evans rat to clarify if the CNS participates in TCDD-induced intoxication. A single dose of TCDD (dissolved in olive oil, 50 microg/kg) or olive oil alone was administered to the rats by gavage. Animals were allowed to survive for 1 day to 5 weeks. Three days after the administration, a significantly large number of Fos-immunopositive cells were found in the hypothalamus (i.e. dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus), central amygdaloid nucleus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These results suggest that some TCDD toxicity may be induced by its direct action on the CNS.
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ABSTRACT: The immediate early gene c-fos, and its protein product c-Fos, are known to be induced in neurons of mammals and fish as a result of neuronal stimulation. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine CNS alterations in killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, in relation to harmful algal bloom (HAB) toxin exposure. c-Fos expression was visualized using immunocytochemistry in the brains of killifish exposed to the excitatory neurotoxins domoic acid (DA) and brevetoxin (PbTx-2), and a paralytic neurotoxin, saxitoxin (STX), released from HABs. In addition, a simulated transport stress experiment was conducted to investigate effects of physical stress on c-Fos induction. Groups of fish were exposed to the different stress agents, brain sections were processed for c-Fos staining, and expression was quantified by brain region. Fish exposed to DA, STX, and transport stress displayed significant alterations in neuronal c-Fos expression when compared to control fish (p< or = 0.05). DA, PbTx-2, and transport stress increased c-Fos expression in the optic tecta regions of the brain, whereas STX significantly decreased expression. This is the first study to quantify c-Fos protein expression in fish exposed to HAB toxins. General alterations in brain activity, as well as knowledge of specific regions within the brain activated in association with HABs or other stressors, provides valuable insights into the neural control of fish behavior as well as sublethal effects of specific stressors in the CNS.Aquatic Toxicology 07/2006; 78(4):350-7. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many toxic environmental and food agents have been suspected to be potential risk factors in inducing memory disabilities under normal and pathological conditions. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (known as dioxin or TCDD) is a common and prototypical member of a class of noxious environmental and food contaminants called the halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Since the role of dioxin in memory processes has not been studied in detail, the present report aims at elucidating the role of this pollutant in the maintenance of cognitive function. We found that TCDD (50miccrog/kg) induced spatial memory deficits in the Morris water maze (MWM) task in female but not male mice. This sex-dependant effect of dioxin seems to be related to the alteration of estrogen pathways, as treatment with 17beta-estradiol-3-benzoate (E; 5microg/day) reversed memory deficits induced by TCDD. We also observed that cognitive impairments produced by dioxin, which is known to interfere with retinoid turnover and metabolism, were abolished by retinoic acid (RA) treatment (150microg/kg). The cognitive effects of E and RA treatments seem to derive from common rather than additive mechanisms since memory deficits produced by TCDD were fully reversed by these compounds when used separately or in combination. Attenuation of dioxin-induced memory deficits in mice lacking transthyretin (TTR) suggests that TCDD may be acting by affecting the major route of retinol transport involving TTR. Taken together, these results suggest that the environmental and food pollutant TCDD can induce memory deficits by altering the estrogen pathways and a main route of TTR-mediated retinol transport.NeuroToxicology 04/2008; 29(2):318-27. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dioxins are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have attracted toxicological interest not only for the potential risk they pose to human health but also because of their unique mechanism of action. This mechanism involves a specific, phylogenetically old intracellular receptor (the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, AHR) which has recently proven to have an integral regulatory role in a number of physiological processes, but whose endogenous ligand is still elusive. A major acute impact of dioxins in laboratory animals is the wasting syndrome, which represents a puzzling and dramatic perturbation of the regulatory systems for energy balance. A single dose of the most potent dioxin, TCDD, can permanently readjust the defended body weight set-point level thus providing a potentially useful tool and model for physiological research. Recent evidence of response-selective modulation of AHR action by alternative ligands suggests further that even therapeutic implications might be possible in the future.Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 10/2010; 31(4):452-78. · 7.99 Impact Factor