2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment induces c-Fos expression in the forebrain of the Long-Evans rat.
ABSTRACT 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants. In the present study, we examined c-Fos expression in the central nervous system (CNS) after administration of a lethal dose of TCDD to the adult Long-Evans rat to clarify if the CNS participates in TCDD-induced intoxication. A single dose of TCDD (dissolved in olive oil, 50 microg/kg) or olive oil alone was administered to the rats by gavage. Animals were allowed to survive for 1 day to 5 weeks. Three days after the administration, a significantly large number of Fos-immunopositive cells were found in the hypothalamus (i.e. dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus), central amygdaloid nucleus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. These results suggest that some TCDD toxicity may be induced by its direct action on the CNS.
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ABSTRACT: To better understand sublethal effects of harmful algal blooms (HABs) on fish, mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus (L.), were exposed in the laboratory to varying, environmentally relevant densities of Pfiesteria shumwayae (Glasgow et Burkholder, CCMP 2089, dinoflagellate) and Chaetoceros concavicornis (Mangin, CCMP 169, diatom). Two experiments were conducted during the spring of 2003 and 2004 to quantitatively examine the effects of acute (2h) P. shumwayae and C. concavicornis algal exposure on mummichog brain activity using c-Fos expression as a marker of altered neuronal activity. Brains from HAB-exposed fish were removed, sectioned, and stained using immunocytochemistry prior to quantifying neuronal c-Fos expression. Fish exposed to P. shumwayae and C. concavicornis showed increased c-Fos expression compared to unexposed control fish. A significant dose-response relationship was observed, with increased labeling in brains of fish exposed to higher cell densities for both HAB species tested (P≤0.01). Increased labeling was found in the telencephalon, optic lobes, midbrain, and portions of the medulla. The greatest increases in expression were observed in the telencephalon of P. shumwayae-exposed fish, and in the telencephalon and optic lobes of C. concavicornis-exposed fish (P≤0.01). These increases in c-Fos expression are consistent with other physical and chemical stress exposures observed in fish. Neuronal stress, evidenced by c-Fos expression, demonstrates a sublethal effect of exposure and changes in brain activity in fish exposed to HAB species.Marine Biology 08/2007; 152(4):835-843. DOI:10.1007/s00227-007-0734-9 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on gene expression and synthesis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in differentiation-disrupted serum-free mouse embryo (SFME) cells were examined. SFME cells were exposed to fetal calf serum (FCS) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to induce differentiation and increase GFAP synthesis. Disruption of differentiation was caused by low-level toluene, significantly inhibiting GFAP synthesis. TCDD at 0.01, 0.1 and 1 pg/ml in the presence of low-level toluene increased GFAP synthesis in the SFME cells, while expression of GFAP mRNA showed no significant change. The TCDD-treated SFME cells detached from the culture substratum, indicating an apparent change in cell adhesion. These results suggest that low-level TCDD further disrupts differentiation of SFME cells in the presence of low-level toluene by upregulating GFAP synthesis and by altering the ability in cell adhesion and that GFAP synthesis is not disrupted at transcription but at translation.Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 12/2003; 15(1):1-8. DOI:10.1016/j.etap.2003.08.004 · 1.86 Impact Factor