ITS regions (internal transcribed spacers--ITS1 and ITS2--with the 5.8S gene of the nuclear rDNA) of 25 fruit body samples of Terfezia terfezioides, originating from Hungary and Italy, were compared. The amplification and sequencing of the ITS region was successful with both the ITS1-ITS4 and ITS1F-ITS4 primer pairs. No differences of the restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were detected among 19 samples collected in one place at the same time. The sequences of the ITS region of 9 samples collected in different localities were highly invariable, differing in only two bases. Thus the intraspecific homogeneity of the ITS region seems to be an important species-specific characteristic of T. terfezioides in contrast to other Terfezia species. As the samples of the species were collected from different and distant localities of Europe, the ITS sequence of T. terfezioides can be considered a very conservative, reliable molecular marker of the fungus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to encourage reluctant ecologists thinking more on the use of genetic markers. No training in molecular methods is supposed. The resistance may be explained by the confusion of the high number of methods, including laboratory techniques (named by up to four characters) and evaluation. Inevitably, field work needs some extra step to collect DNA source, but sampling strategy is the same or even less restrictive owing to the new, powerful statistical methods. Laboratory techniques develop very fast, many phases can be done automatically and/or many customers provide services on reasonable price. Despite the financial and technical requirements, genetic markers provide high quality information that can be obtained hardly otherwise, or simply impossible. We try to overview the most important genetic markers and technology used recently. Some examples are given by studies of parentage, population structure (migration, fragmentation) or population history.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The type of the in vitro root interactions of Terfezia terfezioides with the plants Robinia pseudoacacia and Helianthemum ovatum was investigated including detailed anatomical and ultrastructural characterization. No difference in growth was detected at different phosphate concentrations on agar synthetic medium between the inoculated and control plants during a short-time cultivation. The fungal colonization of the roots increased with higher phosphate level in both plant species, but was always lower in R. pseudoacacia roots. Septate hyphae formed frequently intracellular branched coils in dead cortical cells. In H. ovatum intercellular hyphae were observed forming finger-like structures reminiscent of Hartig-net structures in ectomycorrhizae. A loose hyphal envelope covered the root surface of both colonized and noncolonized roots. The features resembled similar structures described earlier during the mycorrhizae of different Terfezia species. Our detailed anatomical and ultrastructural study shows that the in vitro root interactions of the T. terfezioides cannot be considered unambiguously as mycorrhiza.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Species in the genus Tomentella (Thelephoraceae) belong to the most frequent and widespread ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi found in temperate and boreal forests. Although several unidentified tomentelloid morphotypes have been presented as common members of EM communities in coniferous and broad-leaved forests, few tomentelloid EM have been identified and described in detail. In this study, ten tomentelloid EM isolates collected from Populus alba, Quercus cerris and Picea abies stands in Hungary and Germany are characterized and documented by morphological-anatomical methods using light microscopy. The investigated ectomycorrhizae belong to the same brown-black tomentelloid morphotype but form two different anatomotype groups (At I and At II). Molecular taxonomical identification was accomplished using phylogenetic analysis (neighbor joining method) of 49 Tomentella nrDNA-ITS nucleotide sequences including the 10 new and 39 GenBank sequences. The EM isolates clustered into two adjoining clades identical with the two anatomotypes. At II clustered with Tomentella stuposa while At I could not be identified to species. Based on the morphological similarity and the low genetic difference it must be a closely related taxon. A comparison of the recently known tomentelloid EM to T. stuposa is presented. Ecological questions involving abundance and host relationships are discussed.
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