Beta-amyloid, neuronal death and Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease that affects cognitive function in the elderly. Large extracellular beta-amyloid (Abeta) plaques and tau-containing intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles characterize AD from a histopathologic perspective. However, the severity of dementia in AD is more closely related to the degree of the associated neuronal and synaptic loss. It is not known how neurons die and synapses are lost in AD; the current review summarizes what is known about this issue. Most evidence indicates that amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing is central to the AD process. The Abeta in plaques is a metabolite of the APP that forms when an alternative (beta-secretase and then gamma-secretase) enzymatic pathway is utilized for processing. Mutations of the APP gene lead to AD by influencing APP metabolism. One leading theory is that the Abeta in plaques leads to AD because Abeta is directly toxic to the adjacent neurons. Other theories advance the notion that neuronal death is triggered by intracellular events that occur during APP processing or by extraneuronal preplaque Abeta oligomers. Some investigators speculate that in many cases there is a more general disorder of protein processing in neurons that leads to cell death. In the later models, Abeta plaques are a byproduct of the disease process, rather than the direct cause of neuronal death. A direct correlation between Abeta plaque burden and neuronal (or synaptic) loss should occur in AD if Abeta plaques cause AD through a direct toxic effect. However, histopathologic studies indicate that the correlation between Abeta plaque burden and neuronal (or synaptic) loss is poor. We conclude that APP processing and Abeta formation is important to the AD process, but that neuronal alterations that underlie symptoms of AD are not due exclusively to a direct toxic effect of the Abeta deposits that occur in plaques. A more general problem with protein processing, damage due to the neuron from accumulation of intraneuronal Abeta or extracellular, preplaque Abeta may also be important as underlying factors in the dementia of AD.
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ABSTRACT: We investigated in this study the pharmacological properties of AC-3933 (5-(3-methoxyphenyl)-3-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1,6-naphthyridin-2(1H)-one), a novel benzodiazepine receptor (BzR) partial inverse agonist. AC-3933 potently inhibited [3H]-flumazenil binding to rat whole brain membrane with a Ki value of 5.15 ± 0.39 nM and a GABA ratio of 0.84 ± 0.03. AC-3933 exhibited almost no affinity for the other receptors, transporters and ion channels used in this study. In addition, AC-3933, in the presence of GABA (1 μM), gradually but significantly increased [35S] tert-butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding to rat cortical membrane to 117.1% of the control (maximum increase ratio) at 3000 nM. However, this increase reached a plateau at 30 nM with hardly any change at a concentration range of 100–3000 nM (from 115.2% to 117.1%). AC-3933 (0.1–10 μM) significantly enhanced KCl-evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release from rat hippocampal slices in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, in vivo brain microdialysis showed that intragastric administration of AC-3933 at the dose of 10 mg/kg significantly increased extracellular ACh levels in the hippocampus of freely moving rats (area under the curve (AUC0–2 h) of ACh level; 288.3% of baseline). These results indicate that AC-3933, a potent and selective BzR inverse agonist with low intrinsic activity, might be useful in the treatment of cognitive disorders associated with degeneration of the cholinergic system.Neuroscience 01/2014; 256:352–359. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The amyloid β (Aβ) protein is believed to be the key pathological mediator of Alzheimer's disease (AD) which is the first and most well known type of dementia. Despite a growing body of evidence indicating that Aβ neurotoxicity induces changes in synaptic function, little effort, if any, has been made to investigate the effect of in vivo Aβ treatment on intrinsic neuronal properties. The present study was designed to examine the effects that in vivo Aβ treatment have on the intrinsic repetitive firing properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons, using whole cell patch clamp recording. Protective effect of cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation was also investigated against Aβ-induced alterations in evoked electrophysiological activities. The findings from present study demonstrated that a bilateral injection of Aβ into the prefrontal cortex causes robust changes in activity-dependent electrophysiological responses in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. The effects of Aβ treatment alone was almost completely prevented by combined treatment with Aβ and ACEA, a selective CB1 receptor agonist. It can be concluded Aβ treatment reduces evoked neuronal activity and activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors may have beneficial preventative effects on Aβ-induced electrophysiological changes.Neuroscience Letters 12/2011; 507(1):33-7. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cell death contributes to the maintenance of homeostasis, but mounting evidence has confirmed the involvement of programmed cell death in some diseases. The concept of programmed cell death, which was coined several decades ago to refer to apoptosis, now also encompasses necroptosis, a newly characterized cell death program. Research on programmed cell death has become essential for the development of some new therapies. To study cell death signaling and its molecular mechanisms, new biochemical and fluorogenic approaches have been devised. Here, we first provide an overview of programmed cell death modes and the importance of dynamic cell death studies. Next, we focus on both apoptotic and necroptotic signaling and their mechanisms by providing a systematic review of all the methods and approaches that have been used. We emphasize the contribution of advanced approaches based on fluorescent probes, reporters, and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensors for studying programmed cell death. Because apoptosis and necroptosis signaling pathways share some effectors molecules, we discuss how these new tools could be used to discriminate between apoptosis and necroptosis. We also describe how we developed specific FRET-based biosensors for detecting necroptosis. Finally, we touch on how dynamic measurement of biomolecules in living models will play a role in personalized prognosis and therapy.Biotechnology Journal 01/2014; 9(2). · 3.71 Impact Factor