IgM myeloma: a report of four cases.
ABSTRACT IgM myeloma is a rare disease, accounting for approximately 0.5% of multiple myelomas (MM). Here we report four cases of IgM multiple myeloma. Two were diagnosed in advanced clinical stages with multiple osteolytic lesions, leading to hypercalcemia in one patient. Bone marrow morphology showed a variable degree of infiltration with mainly mature plasma cells. An immunophenotypic analysis performed in one case showed expression of CD38 and monoclonal cytoplasmatic immunoglobulin. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization performed in one case did not reveal any aneuploidies or deletions of the retinoblastoma, P16, or P53 tumor suppressor genes. While one patient with a smoldering IgM myeloma did not need specific therapy, the others received cytotoxic treatment based on standard chemotherapy for MM. The outcomes were one stable disease, one sustained complete remission, and one progressive disease. All four patients were alive 1 year after diagnosis. One died due to progressive disease after 31 months. We conclude that IgM myeloma shares clinical and histological features with other MM rather than with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, which is most commonly diagnosed in cases with IgM monoclonal gammopathy. Since MM and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia differ in prognosis and treatment strategies, the two disease entities should be distinguished based on clinical criteria, bone marrow morphology, and immunophenotypic analysis.
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ABSTRACT: Even though the diagnosis of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia WM is usually clear, the differential diagnosis with IgM multiple myeloma (MM) might be possible. IgM MM is usually characterized by the accumulation of small mature plasma cells within the bone marrow, and the detection of a monoclonal IgM in the serum. However, in contrast with classical MM, IgM MM is rarely associated with these patients' extensive osteolytic lesions. We analyzed eight cases of IgM MM. None presented with extensive bone lesions. All cases were characterized by the presence of small mature plasma cells within the bone marrow. Molecular cytogenetic analysis revealed a t(11;14) in seven of the eight cases. In contrast, a similar analysis in 17 WM cases failed to detect any t(11;14) cases. We performed further fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments, focused on the 14q32 region, and especially on the IgH gene. In contrast to MM (in which illegitimate IgH rearrangements are common), we did not detect any abnormality in the WM cases. In conclusion, even though the cells of origin in WM and MM are mature heavily mutated cells, they differ by the IgH gene rearrangements. Especially in IgM MM, the search for t(11;14) might be useful in difficult cases to discriminate with WM.Seminars in Oncology 05/2003; 30(2):153-5. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma represents a malignant proliferation of plasma cells derived from a single clone within the bone marrow. While the cause of myeloma is not known, interleukin 6 may play a role in driving myeloma cell proliferation. Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM) is a proliferative disease of B-lymphocytes. The cells have lymphoplasmacytoid features and secrete IgM. It is important to distinguish between IgM myeloma and WM as they have distinct clinical courses and prognoses, and treatment strategies are therefore different. The clinical characteristics of a patient diagnosed with IgM myeloma, and his excellent response to treatment are reported here.Clinical & Laboratory Haematology 07/2003; 25(3):187-90. · 1.11 Impact Factor