Catecholestrogen sulfation: possible role in carcinogenesis.
ABSTRACT A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that estrogens can be carcinogens as a result of their conversion to genotoxins after biotransformation to form the catecholestrogens (CEs) 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2), 4-hydroxyestrone (4-OHE1) and 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2). CEs can then undergo further metabolism to form quinones that interact with DNA to form either stable or depurinating adducts. These events could potentially be interrupted by the sulfate conjugation of both the parent estrogens and/or the CEs. We set out to determine whether CEs can serve as substrates for sulfate conjugation, and-if so-which of the growing family of human sulfotransferase (SULT) isoforms are capable of catalyzing those reactions. We determined apparent K(m) values for 10 recombinant human SULT isoforms, as well as the three most common allozymes for SULT1A1 and SULT1A2, with 2-OHE1, 2-OHE2, 4-OHE1, and 4-OHE2, and with the endogenous estrogens, estrone (E1) and 17beta-estradiol (E2), as substrates. With the exception of SULT1B1, SULT1C1, and SULT4A1, all of the human SULTs studied catalyzed the sulfate conjugation of CEs. SULT1E1 had the lowest apparent K(m) values, 0.31, 0.18, 0.27, and 0.22 microM for 4-OHE1, 4-OHE2, 2-OHE1, and 2-OHE2, respectively. These results demonstrate that SULTs can catalyze the sulfate conjugation of CEs, and they raise the possibility that individual variation in this pathway for estrogen and CE metabolism as a result of common genetic polymorphisms could represent a risk factor for estrogen-dependent carcinogenesis.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 10/2007; 16(9):1911. · 4.12 Impact Factor
Article: Crystal structures of SULT1A2 and SULT1A1 *3: insights into the substrate inhibition and the role of Tyr149 in SULT1A2.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) in vertebrates catalyze the sulfonation of endogenous thyroid/steroid hormones and catecholamine neurotransmitters, as well as a variety of xenobiotics, using 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) as the sulfonate donor. In this study, we determined the structures of SULT1A2 and an allozyme of SULT1A1, SULT1A1 *3, bound with 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate (PAP), at 2.4 and 2.3A resolution, respectively. The conformational differences between the two structures revealed a plastic substrate-binding pocket with two channels and a switch-like substrate selectivity residue Phe247, providing clearly a structural basis for the substrate inhibition. In SULT1A2, Tyr149 extends approximately 2.1A further to the inside of the substrate-binding pocket, compared with the corresponding His149 residue in SULT1A1 *3. Site-directed mutagenesis study showed that, compared with the wild-type SULT1A2, mutant Tyr149Phe SULT1A2 exhibited a 40 times higher K(m) and two times lower V(max) with p-nitrophenol as substrate. These latter data imply a significant role of Tyr149 in the catalytic mechanism of SULT1A2.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2010; 396(2):429-34. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The human cytosolic sulfotransfases (hSULTs) comprise a family of 12 phase II enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs and hormones, the bioactivation of carcinogens, and the detoxification of xenobiotics. Knowledge of the structural and mechanistic basis of substrate specificity and activity is crucial for understanding steroid and hormone metabolism, drug sensitivity, pharmacogenomics, and response to environmental toxins. We have determined the crystal structures of five hSULTs for which structural information was lacking, and screened nine of the 12 hSULTs for binding and activity toward a panel of potential substrates and inhibitors, revealing unique "chemical fingerprints" for each protein. The family-wide analysis of the screening and structural data provides a comprehensive, high-level view of the determinants of substrate binding, the mechanisms of inhibition by substrates and environmental toxins, and the functions of the orphan family members SULT1C3 and SULT4A1. Evidence is provided for structural "priming" of the enzyme active site by cofactor binding, which influences the spectrum of small molecules that can bind to each enzyme. The data help explain substrate promiscuity in this family and, at the same time, reveal new similarities between hSULT family members that were previously unrecognized by sequence or structure comparison alone.PLoS Biology 05/2007; 5(5):e97. · 11.45 Impact Factor