Sigma(2)-receptor regulation of dopamine transporter via activation of protein kinase C.
ABSTRACT The elucidation of the mechanisms underlying sigma(2)-receptor activation and signal transduction is crucial to the understanding of sigma(2)-receptor function. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated sigma(2)-receptor-mediated regulation of the dopamine transporter (DAT) as measured by amphetamine-stimulated release of [(3)H]dopamine (DA) from both rat striatal slices and PC12 cells. The regulation of the DAT in the PC12 cell model was dependent upon activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. We have now studied the second messenger systems involved in sigma(2)-receptor-mediated regulation of amphetamine-stimulated [(3)H]DA release in rat striatal slices, including Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, protein kinase C, and sources of calcium required for the enhancement of release produced by sigma(2)-receptor activation. The Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II inhibitors 1-[N,O-bis-(5-isoquionolinesulfonyl)]-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl-4-phenylpiperazine and N-[2-[[[3-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2-propenyl]methylamino]methyl]phenyl]-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4'-methoxy-benzenesulfonamide phosphate did not significantly affect the (+)-pentazocine-mediated enhancement of amphetamine-stimulated [(3)H]DA release. However, we found that an inhibitor of protein kinase C, 3-[1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione, blocks the (+)-pentazocine-mediated enhancement in rat striatal slices. The protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, but not the inactive isophorbol 4 alpha,9 alpha,12 alpha,13 alpha,20-pentahydroxytiglia-1,6-dien-3-one, enhanced the amphetamine-stimulated [(3)H]DA release comparable to the enhancement seen by (+)-pentazocine alone. Additionally, the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel inhibitor nitrendipine or prior treatment with thapsigargin, but not the N-type voltage-dependent calcium channel omega-conotoxin MVIIA, attenuated the (+)-pentazocine-mediated enhancement. Together, these data suggest that activation of sigma(2)-receptors results in the regulation of DAT activity via a calcium- and protein kinase C-dependent signaling mechanism.
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ABSTRACT: Sigma (σ) sites are a type of nonopiate receptor whose role has been associated with several behaviours, including anxiety, depression, analgesia, learning processes and psychosis. Although there are several known σ receptor types, only the type I receptor (σ1) has been cloned. To uncover the in vivo relevance of σ-receptors, we have generated knockout mice for σ1. Despite the broad expression pattern found for the σ1-gene, homozygous mutant mice are viable, fertile and do not display any overt phenotype, compared with their wild-type litter-mates, in mixed genetic backgrounds. However, a significant decrease in the hypermotility response has been measured in knockout mice upon challenge with (+)SKF-10 047, in agreement with the involvement of σ1-receptors in the induction of psychostimulant actions. The activity of σ2-receptors seems to be unaffected in σ1-mutant mice. These knockout mice could contribute to better understand the in vivo role of σ-receptors.European Journal of Neuroscience 09/2003; 18(8):2188 - 2196. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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