Sigma(2)-receptor regulation of dopamine transporter via activation of protein kinase C.
ABSTRACT The elucidation of the mechanisms underlying sigma(2)-receptor activation and signal transduction is crucial to the understanding of sigma(2)-receptor function. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated sigma(2)-receptor-mediated regulation of the dopamine transporter (DAT) as measured by amphetamine-stimulated release of [(3)H]dopamine (DA) from both rat striatal slices and PC12 cells. The regulation of the DAT in the PC12 cell model was dependent upon activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. We have now studied the second messenger systems involved in sigma(2)-receptor-mediated regulation of amphetamine-stimulated [(3)H]DA release in rat striatal slices, including Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, protein kinase C, and sources of calcium required for the enhancement of release produced by sigma(2)-receptor activation. The Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II inhibitors 1-[N,O-bis-(5-isoquionolinesulfonyl)]-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl-4-phenylpiperazine and N-[2-[[[3-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2-propenyl]methylamino]methyl]phenyl]-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4'-methoxy-benzenesulfonamide phosphate did not significantly affect the (+)-pentazocine-mediated enhancement of amphetamine-stimulated [(3)H]DA release. However, we found that an inhibitor of protein kinase C, 3-[1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione, blocks the (+)-pentazocine-mediated enhancement in rat striatal slices. The protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, but not the inactive isophorbol 4 alpha,9 alpha,12 alpha,13 alpha,20-pentahydroxytiglia-1,6-dien-3-one, enhanced the amphetamine-stimulated [(3)H]DA release comparable to the enhancement seen by (+)-pentazocine alone. Additionally, the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel inhibitor nitrendipine or prior treatment with thapsigargin, but not the N-type voltage-dependent calcium channel omega-conotoxin MVIIA, attenuated the (+)-pentazocine-mediated enhancement. Together, these data suggest that activation of sigma(2)-receptors results in the regulation of DAT activity via a calcium- and protein kinase C-dependent signaling mechanism.
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ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug of abuse that causes neurotoxicity with high or repeated dosing. Earlier studies demonstrated the ability of the selective σ receptor ligand N-phenethylpiperidine oxalate (AC927) to attenuate the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine in vivo. However, the precise mechanisms through which AC927 conveys its protective effects remain to be determined. With the use of differentiated NG108-15 cells as a model system, the effects of methamphetamine on neurotoxic endpoints and mediators such as apoptosis, necrosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and dopamine release were examined in the absence and presence of AC927. Methamphetamine at physiologically relevant micromolar concentrations caused apoptosis in NG108-15 cells. At higher concentrations of methamphetamine, necrotic cell death was observed. At earlier time points, methamphetamine caused ROS/RNS generation, which was detected with the fluorigenic substrate 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate, acetyl ester, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. N-Acetylcysteine, catalase, and l-N(G)-monomethyl arginine citrate inhibited the ROS/RNS fluorescence signal induced by methamphetamine, which suggests the formation of hydrogen peroxide and RNS. Exposure to methamphetamine also stimulated the release of dopamine from NG108-15 cells into the culture medium. AC927 attenuated methamphetamine-induced apoptosis, necrosis, ROS/RNS generation, and dopamine release in NG108-15 cells. Together, the data suggest that modulation of σ receptors can mitigate methamphetamine-induced cytotoxicity, ROS/RNS generation, and dopamine release in cultured cells.Molecular pharmacology 11/2011; 81(3):299-308. DOI:10.1124/mol.111.074120 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug of abuse. Low and high dose administration of METH leads to locomotor stimulation, and dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity, respectively. The behavioral stimulant and neurotoxic effects of METH can contribute to addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders, thus necessitating the identification of potential pharmacotherapeutics against these effects produced by METH. METH binds to σ receptors at physiologically relevant concentrations. Also, σ receptors are present on and can modulate dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Therefore, σ receptors provide a viable target for the development of pharmacotherapeutics against the adverse effects of METH. In the present study, CM156, a σ receptor ligand with high affinity and selectivity for σ receptors over 80 other non-σ binding sites, was evaluated against METH-induced stimulant, hyperthermic, and neurotoxic effects. Pretreatment of male, Swiss Webster mice with CM156 dose dependently attenuated the locomotor stimulation, hyperthermia, striatal dopamine and serotonin depletions, and striatal dopamine and serotonin transporter reductions produced by METH, without significant effects of CM156 on its own. These results demonstrate the ability of a highly selective σ ligand to mitigate the effects of METH.Neuropharmacology 10/2011; 61(5-6):992-1000. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.06.028 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of sigma receptor antagonists on methamphetamine (METH)-induced stereotypy have not been examined. We examined the effects of sigma antagonists on METH-induced stereotypy in mice. The administration of METH (10 mg/kg) to male ddY mice induced stereotyped behavior consisting of biting (90.1%), sniffing (4.2%), head bobbing (4.1%), and circling (1.7%) during an observation period of 1 h. Pretreatment of the mice with BMY 14802 (alpha-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-(5-fluoro-2-pyrimidinyl)-1-piperazinebutanol; 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg), a non-specific sigma receptor antagonist, significantly increased METH-induced sniffing (19.2%, 30.5%, and 43.8% of total stereotypical behavior) but decreased biting (76.6%, 66.9%, and 49.3% of total stereotypical behavior) in a dose-dependent manner. This response was completely abolished by (+)-SKF 10,047 ([2S-(2alpha,6alpha,11R)]-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydro-6,11-dimethyl-3-(2-propenyl)-2,6-methano-3-benzazocin-8-ol; 4 and 10 mg/kg), a putative sigma(1) receptor agonist, and partially by PB 28 (1-cyclohexyl-4-[3-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5-methoxy-1-naphthalen-1-yl)-n-propyl]piperazine; 1 and 10 mg/kg), a putative sigma(2) receptor agonist. The BMY 14802 action on METH-induced stereotypy was mimicked by BD 1047 (N-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-N-methyl-2-(dimethylamino)ethylamine; 10 mg/kg), a putative sigma(1) receptor antagonist, but not by SM-21 ((+/-)-tropanyl 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)butanoate; 1 mg/kg), a putative sigma(2) receptor antagonist. The BD 1047 effect on METH-induced stereotypy was also abolished completely by (+)-SKF 10,047 and partially by PB 28. The overall frequency of METH-induced stereotypical behavior was unchanged with these sigma receptor ligands, despite the alteration in particular behavioral patterns. The BMY 14802 action on METH-induced stereotypy was unaffected by pretreatment with centrally acting histamine H(1) receptor antagonists (pyrilamine or ketotifen, 10 mg/kg), suggesting that these effects are independent of histamine H(1) receptor signaling systems. In summary, modulation of central sigma(1) receptors alters the pattern of METH-induced stereotypy, producing a shift from stereotypical biting to stereotypical sniffing, without affecting the overall frequency of stereotypical behavior.Psychopharmacology 01/2009; 203(4):781-92. DOI:10.1007/s00213-008-1425-z · 3.99 Impact Factor