Altered cardiovascular responses in mice lacking the M(1) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor
ABSTRACT Although the M(2) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) is the predominant functional mAChR subtype in the heart, some responses of the cardiovascular system to acetylcholine (ACh) may be mediated by other mAChR subtypes. The potential effect of M(1) mAChR on heart function was investigated using M(1) knockout (M(1)-KO) mice. In vivo cardiodynamic analysis showed that basal values of heart rate (HR), developed left ventricular pressure (DLVP), left ventricular dP/dt(max) (LV dP/dt(max)), and mean blood pressure (MBP) were similar between wild-type (WT) and M(1)-KO mice. Injection of the putative M(1)-selective agonist 4-(m-chlorophenyl-carbamoyloxy)-2-butynyltrimethylammonium (McN-A-343) produced an increase in LV dP/dt(max), DLVP, HR, and MBP in WT mice but did not affect hemodynamic function in the M(1)-KO mice. The stimulatory effect of McN-A-343 in WT mice was blocked by pretreatment with propranolol, indicating that stimulation of the M(1) mAChRs on sympathetic postganglionic neurons evoked release of catecholamines. Intravenous injection of ACh in both WT and M(1)-KO mice caused atrioventricular conduction block, without a significant change in the frequency of atrial depolarization, or atrial fibrillation. Immunoprecipitation and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction failed to detect the expression of M(1) mAChR in cardiac tissue from WT mice. The carbachol-induced increase of phospholipase C activity in cardiac tissues was not different between WT and M(1)-KO mice. These results demonstrate that 1) activation of M(1) mAChR subtype on sympathetic postganglionic cells results in catecholamine-mediated cardiac stimulation, 2) M(1) mAChR is not expressed in mouse heart, and 3) administration of ACh to mice induces arrhythmia.
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- "When AVN cells were pre-treated with the M2 receptor inhibitor AFDX-116 (1 lM), the response to 1 lM ACh was largely abolished (Fig. 1C), demonstrating M2 receptor activation to be responsible for generation of AVN I KACh . This is concordant with: (i) prior work on anaesthetised dogs in which AFDX-116 inhibited chronotropic and dromotropic responses to intracardiac vagal nerve stimulation ; (ii) the persistence of AV conduction block in response to intravenous ACh in mice deficient in M1-receptors , and (iii) presumed M2-receptor mediated conduction effects of propofol on guinea-pig hearts . SAN I KACh is sensitive to the bee venom toxin tertiapin  . "
ABSTRACT: The atrioventricular node (AVN) is a vital component of the pacemaker-conduction system of the heart, co-ordinating conduction of electrical excitation from cardiac atria to ventricles and acting as a secondary pacemaker. The electrical behaviour of the AVN is modulated by vagal activity via activation of muscarinic potassium current, IKACh. However, it is not yet known if this response exhibits 'fade' or desensitization in the AVN, as established for the heart's primary pacemaker--the sinoatrial node. In this study, acute activation of IKACh in rabbit single AVN cells was investigated using whole-cell patch clamp at 37 °C. 0.1-1 μM acetylcholine (ACh) rapidly activated a robust IKACh in AVN myocytes during a descending voltage-ramp protocol. This response was inhibited by tertiapin-Q (TQ; 300 nM) and by the M2 muscarinic ACh receptor antagonist AFDX-116 (1 μM). During sustained ACh exposure the elicited IKACh exhibited bi-exponential fade (τf of 2.0 s and τs 76.9 s at -120 mV; 1 μM ACh). 10 nM ET-1 elicited a current similar to IKACh, which faded with a mono-exponential time-course (τ of 52.6 s at -120 mV). When ET-1 was applied following ACh, the ET-1 activated response was greatly attenuated, demonstrating that ACh could desensitize the response to ET-1. For neither ACh nor ET-1 was the rate of current fade dependent upon the initial response magnitude, which is inconsistent with K+ flux mediated changes in electrochemical driving force as the underlying mechanism. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that TQ sensitive inwardly rectifying K+ current in cardiac AVN cells, elicited by M2 muscarinic receptor or ET-1 receptor activation, exhibits fade due to rapid desensitization.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2012; 423(3):496-502. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.05.148 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 1 It was investigated how A(1)-adenosine receptor overexpression alters the effects of carbachol on force of contraction and beating rate in isolated murine atria. Moreover, the influence of pertussis toxin on the inotropic and chronotropic effects of adenosine and carbachol in A(1)-adenosine receptor overexpressing atria was studied. 2 Adenosine and carbachol alone exerted negative inotropic and chronotropic effects in electrically driven left atrium or spontaneously beating right atrium of wild-type mice. 3 These effects were abolished or reversed by pre-treatment of animals with pertussis toxin which can interfere with signal transduction through G-proteins. 4 Adenosine and carbachol exerted positive inotropic but negative chronotropic effects in atrium overexpressing A(1)-adenosine receptors from transgenic mice. 5 The positive inotropic effects of adenosine and carbachol were qualitatively unaltered whereas the negative chronotropic effects were abolished or reversed in atrium overexpressing A(1)-adenosine receptors after pre-treatment by pertussis toxin. 6 Qualitatively similar effects for adenosine and carbachol were noted in the presence of isoprenaline, beta-adrenoceptor agonist. 7 It is concluded that overexpression of A(1)-adenosine receptors also affects the signal transduction of other heptahelical, G-protein coupled receptors like the M-cholinoceptor in the heart. The chronotropic but not the inotropic effects of adenosine and carbachol in transgenic atrium were mediated via pertussis toxin sensitive G-proteins.British Journal of Pharmacology 02/2003; 138(1):209-17. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705012 · 4.99 Impact Factor