T cell developmental defects in 'viable motheaten' mice deficient in SHP-1 protein-tyrosine phosphatase. Developmental defects are corrected in vitro in the presence of normal hematopoietic-origin stromal cells and in vivo by exogenous IL-7.
ABSTRACT Defects in the gene that encodes SHP-1 protein tyrosine phosphatase result in multiple hematopoietic abnormalities and generalized autoimmunity in viable motheaten (me(v)) mice. These mice also exhibit early thymic involution and abnormalities in T cell development. Here, we describe the use of fetal thymic organ culture (FTOC) and bone marrow adoptive transfer to study the effects of SHP-1 deficiency on thymocyte development. Chimeric FTOC established with normal bone marrow placed onto deoxyguanosine-treated fetal thymic lobes or onto scid fetal thymic lobes generated T cells. Bone marrow from SHP-1-deficient me(v)/ me(v) mice generated decreased numbers of T cells in chimeric FTOC established using deoxyguanosine-treated thymi but generated normal numbers in chimeric FTOC established using scid thymi. However, scid fetal thymi seeded with me(v)/ me(v) bone marrow also exhibited morphological abnormalities and contained elevated numbers of macrophages. Addition of IL-7 to me(v)/ me(v) bone marrow-seeded scid FTOC led to increased cell numbers, particularly of macrophages. Intrathymic injection of IL-7 partially restored the ability of progenitor cells in me(v)/ me(v) bone marrow to populate the thymus of adoptive recipients. We conclude that abnormal T cell development in me(v)/ me(v) mice may in part be due to defects in the ability of bone marrow-derived accessory cells to provide bioavailable IL-7 to developing thymocytes.
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ABSTRACT: The role of the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in the hematopoietic system has been well studied; however, its role in the central nervous system (CNS) response to injury is not well understood. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated increased immunoreactivity for SHP-1 in a subset of reactive astrocytes that do not appear to enter the cell cycle following deafferentation of the chicken auditory brainstem. In order to determine whether mammalian astrocytes also upregulate SHP-1 immunoreactivity following CNS injury, a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia was utilized to study SHP-1 expression. The brains of 3-week-old mice were analyzed at four time points following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO): 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Our results demonstrate consistent infarct volumes within surgical groups, and infarct volumes decrease as a function of time from 1 day (maximum infarct volume) to 14 days (minimum infarct volume) post-MCAO. In addition, SHP-1 protein levels are upregulated following cerebral ischemia and this increase peaks at 7 days post-MCAO. Analysis of confocal images further reveals that immunoreactivity for SHP-1 occurs predominantly in GFAP+ reactive astrocytes, although a small percentage of F4-80+ microglia are also double labeled for SHP-1 at early times post-MCAO. These SHP-1+ reactive astrocytes do not appear to enter the cell cycle (as defined by PCNA immunoreactivity), confirming our previous studies in the avian auditory brainstem. These results suggest that SHP-1 plays an important role in the regulation of glial activation and proliferation in the ischemic CNS.Brain Research 07/2003; 974(1-2):88-98. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Given the importance of a firm's performance, which is of significant interest to many groups of people including management, shareholders and governments, this study aims to examine the impact of brand recognition and brand reputation on firm performance within the U.S. multinational restaurant company context. The study findings suggest that brand reputation, in general, has a positive influence on a firm's value performance but no significant relationship with accounting performance. Brand recognition shows no significant relationship with both value and accounting performance measures controlling for the degree of internationalization of a multinational restaurant company.International Journal of Hospitality Management 12/2009; 28(4):620–630. · 1.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Internationalization has been a major expansion strategy for many US corporations including hotel companies. Some researchers argue that internationalization adds value to firms while others hold an opposite perspective. This study examines impacts of general internationalization of US multinational hotel companies (MNHCs) on firm value, estimated by Tobin's Q. Second, the study examines differences between internationalization of US MNHCs in different regions, that is, Asia and Europe. Lastly, the study tests a curvilinear relationship between internationalization and firm value.International Journal of Hospitality Management 12/2008; · 1.77 Impact Factor