Activation of m-calpain (calpain II) by epidermal growth factor is limited by protein kinase A phosphorylation of m-calpain.
ABSTRACT We have shown previously that the ELR-negative CXC chemokines interferon-inducible protein 10, monokine induced by gamma interferon, and platelet factor 4 inhibit epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced m-calpain activation and thereby EGF-induced fibroblast cell motility (H. Shiraha, A. Glading, K. Gupta, and A. Wells, J. Cell Biol. 146:243-253, 1999). However, how this cross attenuation could be accomplished remained unknown since the molecular basis of physiological m-calpain regulation is unknown. As the initial operative attenuation signal from the CXCR3 receptor was cyclic AMP (cAMP), we verified that this second messenger blocked EGF-induced motility of fibroblasts (55% +/- 4.5% inhibition) by preventing rear release during active locomotion. EGF-induced calpain activation was inhibited by cAMP activation of protein kinase A (PKA), as the PKA inhibitors H-89 and Rp-8Br-cAMPS abrogated cAMP inhibition of both motility and calpain activation. We hypothesized that PKA might negatively modulate m-calpain in an unexpected manner by directly phosphorylating m-calpain. A mutant human large subunit of m-calpain was genetically engineered to negate a putative PKA consensus sequence in the regulatory domain III (ST369/370AA) and was expressed in NR6WT mouse fibroblasts to represent about 30% of total m-calpain in these cells. This construct was not phosphorylated by PKA in vitro while a wild-type construct was, providing proof of the principle that m-calpain can be directly phosphorylated by PKA at this site. cAMP suppressed EGF-induced calpain activity of cells overexpressing a control wild-type human m-calpain (83% +/- 3.7% inhibition) but only marginally suppressed that of cells expressing the PKA-resistant mutant human m-calpain (25% +/- 5.5% inhibition). The EGF-induced motility of the cells expressing the PKA-resistant mutant also was not inhibited by cAMP. Structural modeling revealed that new constraints resulting from phosphorylation at serine 369 would restrict domain movement and help "freeze" m-calpain in an inactive state. These data point to a novel mechanism of negative control of calpain activation, direct phosphorylation by PKA.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Alan Wells, Jun 23, 2015
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ABSTRACT: The signals that prune the exuberant vascular growth of tissue repair are still ill defined. We demonstrate that activation of CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) mediates the regression of newly formed blood vessels. We present evidence that CXCR3 is expressed on newly formed vessels in vivo and in vitro. CXCR3 is expressed on vessels at days 7-21 post-wounding, and is undetectable in unwounded or healed skin. Treatment of endothelial cords with CXCL10 (IP-10), a CXCR3 ligand present during the resolving phase of wounds, either in vitro or in vivo caused dissociation even in the presence of angiogenic factors. Consistent with this, mice lacking CXCR3 express a greater number of vessels in wound tissue compared to wild-type mice. We then hypothesized that signaling from CXCR3 not only limits angiogenesis, but also compromises vessel integrity to induce regression. We found that activation of CXCR3 triggers micro-calpain activity, causing cleavage of the cytoplasmic tail of beta3 integrins at the calpain cleavage sites c'754 and c'747. IP-10 stimulation also activated caspase 3, blockage of which prevented cell death but not cord dissociation. This is the first direct evidence for an extracellular signaling mechanism through CXCR3 that causes the dissociation of newly formed blood vessels followed by cell death.Journal of Cell Science 07/2009; 122(Pt 12):2064-77. DOI:10.1242/jcs.048793 · 5.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Massive T cell infiltration into the central nervous system is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its rodent model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), resulting in the induction of many of the pathophysiological events that lead to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Thus, blocking T cell migration into the central nervous system may reduce disease severity in MS and EAE. One potential target for reducing T cell migration is inhibition of the Ca(2+)-activated neutral protease calpain. Previous studies in other cell types have demonstrated that migration is reduced by incubation of cells with calpain inhibitors. Thus, we hypothesize that calpain inhibition will reduce migration of T cells in response to and toward the chemokine CCL2. To test this hypothesis, the intracellular free Ca(2+) levels in Jurkat E6-1 T cells was first measured by the fura-2 assay to assess whether the intracellular ion environment would support calpain activation. The intracellular free Ca(2+) levels were found to increase in response to CCL2. The cells were next treated with the calpain inhibitor calpeptin in a multiwelled Boyden chamber with CCL2 used as the chemoattractant. These studies demonstrate that inhibition of calpain with its inhibitor calpeptin produces a dose-dependent inhibition of chemotaxis. Calpain activity, as measured by live cell imaging, was also increased in response to CCL2, providing further evidence of its involvement in the process of chemotaxis and migration. These studies provide evidence for the involvement of calpain in the mechanisms of chemotaxis and warrants further exploration in MS patient and EAE animal samples.Journal of Neuroscience Research 02/2009; 87(3):626-35. DOI:10.1002/jnr.21882 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The interaction of platelet glycoprotein (GP) Ibalpha with von Willebrand factor (VWF) exposed at the injured vessel wall initiates platelet adhesion and thrombus formation. Thus GPIbalpha ectodomain shedding has important implications for thrombosis and hemostasis. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) was identified recently to play an essential role in agonist induced GPIbalpha shedding. Here we show that prolonged inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) results in metalloproteinase-dependent GPIbalpha shedding. GPIbalpha was shed from platelets prolongedly incubated with PKA inhibitors in a dose-dependent manner. In platelets treated with PKA inhibitor H89, the level of GPIbalpha shedding was significantly higher than that in calcium ionophore or alpha-thrombin treated platelets, however, P-selectin surface expression was significantly lower. PKA inhibition mediated GPIbalpha shedding was reversed by PKA activator forskolin and partially inhibited by membrane-permeable calpain inhibitors. Furthermore, the metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001 or EDTA completely inhibited H89 induced GPIbalpha shedding, indicating that it was metalloproteinase-dependent. Time course experiments revealed that the maximum GPIbalpha shedding occurred at 30 minutes after treatment with PKA inhibitor. Platelets prolongedly treated with PKA inhibitor exhibited significant decrease in botrocetin-induced aggregation and shear-induced adhesion on VWF. These data show that prolonged inhibition of PKA results in metalloproteinase-dependent platelet GPIbalpha ectodomain shedding. This finding has physiological implications for hemostasis and limiting thrombus infinite formation after platelet activation, and it also suggests a novel strategy to develop new drugs for thrombotic diseases.Thrombosis Research 02/2009; 124(1):101-9. DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2008.12.044 · 2.43 Impact Factor