Apolipoprotein E4 potentiates amyloid beta peptide-induced lysosomal leakage and apoptosis in neuronal cells
ABSTRACT We assessed the isoform-specific effects of apolipoprotein (apo) E on the response of Neuro-2a cells to the amyloid beta peptide (Abeta1-42). As determined by the intracellular staining pattern and the release of beta-hexosaminidase into the cytosol, apoE4-transfected cells treated with aggregated Abeta1-42 showed a greater tendency toward lysosomal leakage than neo- or apoE3-transfected cells. Abeta1-42 caused significantly greater cell death and more than 2-fold greater DNA fragmentation in apoE4-secreting than in apoE3-secreting or control cells. H2O2 or staurosporine enhanced cell death and apoptosis in apoE4-transfected cells but not in apoE3-transfected cells. A caspase-9 inhibitor abolished the potentiation of Abeta1-42-induced apoptosis by apoE4. Similar results were obtained with conditioned medium from cells secreting apoE3 or apoE4. Cells preincubated for 4 h with a source of apoE3 or apoE4, followed by removal of apoE from the medium and from the cell surface, still exhibited the isoform-specific response to Abeta1-42, indicating that the potentiation of apoptosis required intracellular apoE, presumably in the endosomes or lysosomes. Studies of phospholipid (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) bilayer vesicles encapsulating 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein dye showed that apoE4 remodeled and disrupted the phospholipid vesicles to a greater extent than apoE3 or apoE2. In response to Abeta1-42, vesicles containing apoE4 were disrupted to a greater extent than those containing apoE3. These findings are consistent with apoE4 forming a reactive molecular intermediate that avidly binds phospholipid and may insert into the lysosomal membrane, destabilizing it and causing lysosomal leakage and apoptosis in response to Abeta1-42.
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ABSTRACT: Aging is accompanied by increasing vulnerability to pathologies such as atherosclerosis (ATH) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Are these different pathologies, or different presentations with a similar underlying pathoetiology? Both ATH and AD involve inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and occlusion of the vasculature. Allelic variants in common genes including APOE predispose to both diseases. In both there is strong evidence of disease association with viral and bacterial pathogens including herpes simplex and Chlamydophila. Furthermore, ablation of components of the immune system (or of bone marrow-derived macrophages alone) in animal models restricts disease development in both cases, arguing that both are accentuated by inflammatory/immune pathways. We discuss that amyloid beta, a distinguishing feature of AD, also plays a key role in ATH. Several drugs, at least in mouse models, are effective in preventing the development of both ATH and AD. Given similar age-dependence, genetic underpinnings, involvement of the vasculature, association with infection, Abeta involvement, the central role of macrophages, and drug overlap, we conclude that the two conditions reflect different manifestations of a common pathoetiology.Mechanism: Infection and inflammation selectively induce the expression of cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H). Acutely, the production of 'immunosterol' 25-hydroxycholesterol (25OHC) defends against enveloped viruses. We present evidence that chronic macrophage CH25H upregulation leads to catalyzed esterification of sterols via 25OHC-driven allosteric activation of ACAT (acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase/SOAT), intracellular accumulation of cholesteryl esters and lipid droplets, vascular occlusion, and overt disease. We postulate that AD and ATH are both caused by chronic immunologic challenge that induces CH25H expression and protection against particular infectious agents, but at the expense of longer-term pathology.BMC Geriatrics 03/2014; 14(1):36. DOI:10.1186/1471-2318-14-36 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathology of amyloidoses are not well understood, the interaction between amyloid proteins and cell membranes is thought to play a role in several amyloid diseases. Amyloid fibrils of β2-microglobulin (β2m), associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA), have been shown to cause disruption of anionic lipid bilayers in vitro. However, the effect of lipid composition and the chemical environment in which β2m-lipid interactions occur have not been investigated previously. Here we examine membrane damage resulting from the interaction of β2m monomers and fibrils with lipid bilayers. Using dye release, tryptophan fluorescence quenching and fluorescence confocal microscopy assays we investigate the effect of anionic lipid composition and pH on the susceptibility of liposomes to fibril-induced membrane damage. We show that β2m fibril-induced membrane disruption is modulated by anionic lipid composition and is enhanced by acidic pH. Most strikingly, the greatest degree of membrane disruption is observed for liposomes containing bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) at acidic pH, conditions likely to reflect those encountered in the endocytic pathway. The results suggest that the interaction between β2m fibrils and membranes of endosomal origin may play a role in the molecular mechanism of β2m amyloid-associated osteoarticular tissue destruction in DRA.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104492. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104492 · 3.53 Impact Factor