A Comparison of Knee Kinetics between Male and Female Recreational Athletes in Stop-Jump Tasks

Center for Human Movement Sciences, Division of Physical Therapy, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7135, USA.
The American Journal of Sports Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.36). 01/2002; 30(2):261-7. DOI: 10.1177/03635465020300021901
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We compared the knee kinetics of 10 male and 10 female recreational athletes (aged 19 to 25 years) performing forward, vertical, and backward stop-jump tasks. Three-dimensional videography and force plate data were used to record the subjects' performance of the three stop-jump tasks, and an inverse dynamic procedure was used to estimate the knee joint resultant forces and moments. Women exhibited greater proximal anterior shear force than did men during the landing phase. All subjects exhibited greater proximal tibia anterior shear force during the landing phase of the backward stop-jump task than during the other two stop-jump tasks. Women also exhibited greater knee extension and valgus moments than did men during the landing phase of each stop-jump task. Men exhibited greater proximal tibia anterior shear force than did women during the takeoff phase of vertical and backward stop-jump tasks. These results indicate that female recreational athletes may have altered motor control strategies that result in knee positions in which anterior cruciate ligament injuries may occur. The landing phase was more stressful for the anterior cruciate ligament of both women and men than the takeoff phase in all stop-jump tasks. Technical training for female athletes may need to be focused on reducing the peak proximal tibia anterior shear force in stop-jump tasks. Further studies are needed to determine the factors associated with the increased peak proximal tibia anterior shear force in female recreational athletes.

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Available from: Donald T Kirkendall, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "It was indicated that knee joint had a greater loading during side step block landing. Chappell et al. (2002) reported that the landing phase generates larger anterior knee shear forces compared with the takeoff phase. And females exhibit greater proximal tibia anterior shear forces and larger knee extension during the landing phase. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of block and side step block on lower extremity biomechanics during landing in female volleyball players. Eight female university volleyball players participated in this study. The kinematic and kinetic data were collected by eight Vicon cameras (250 Hz) and two force plates (1000 Hz). The Visual 3D software was used to analyze the kinematic and kinetic of block and side step block landing variables. The results showed a significantly higher knee extensor moment during side step landing than the block landing at the time of peak vertical ground reaction force and peak joint moment. It was concluded that female players displayed greater knee extensor moment during the side step before block landing that may increase the loading on the knee.
    ISBS 2015, Poitires, France; 06/2015
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    • "The tendency to perform sidestep cuts with a straighter knee could be exacerbated by decreased posterior shear hamstrings force (Shultz et al., 2001). Chappell et al. (2002) concluded that increased anterior shear force demonstrated by female athletes was potentially due to the combination of increased quadriceps force, decreased hamstrings force, and decreased knee flexion. Landing or cutting with the knee near full extension is commonly observed in video analysis of ACL injuries (Boden et al., 2000; Olsen et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Dynamic knee stability is considered a critical factor in reducing anterior cruciate ligament loads. While the relationships between hamstring force production and anterior cruciate ligament loading is well known in vitro, the influence of hamstrings strength to anterior cruciate ligament loading during athletic maneuvers remains unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of hamstring strength on anterior cruciate ligament loading during anticipated sidestep cut. Methods Seventeen recreationally active females were recruited to perform sidestep cutting maneuvers pre/post an acute hamstrings strength reduction protocol. Kinematics and kinetics were calculated during the cut and a musculoskeletal model was used to estimate muscle, joint, and anterior cruciate ligament loads. Dependent t-tests were conducted to investigate differences between the two cutting conditions. Findings Anterior cruciate ligament loading increased by 36% due to reduced hamstrings strength. This was mostly due to a 44% increase in sagittal plane loading and a 24% increase in frontal plane loading. Post strength reduction sidestep cuts were also performed with decreased anterior tibiofemoral shear force, an outcome that would theoretically reduce anterior cruciate ligament loading. However, the overall decrease in hamstrings force production coupled with a more axial hamstrings line of action yielded a net increase in anterior cruciate ligament loading. Interpretation These results suggest that decreased hamstrings strength significantly increases anterior cruciate ligament loading during anticipated sidestep cutting. Additionally, these results support the premise that preseason screening programs should monitor hamstrings strength to identify female athletes with potential deficits and increased injury risk.
    Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) 08/2014; 29(7). DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2014.05.013 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    • "Parameter Ex vivo mean(SD) In vivo mean(SD) References Landing duration (landing stance) 72 (11) msec 75 msec Joseph et al. (2011) 55 (15) msec Chappell et al. (2002) "
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    ABSTRACT: Challenges in accurate, in vivo quantification of multi-planar knee kinematics and relevant timing sequence during high-risk injurious tasks pose challenges in understanding the relative contributions of joint loads in non-contact injury mechanisms. Biomechanical testing on human cadaveric tissue, if properly designed, offers a practical means to evaluate joint biomechanics and injury mechanisms. This study seeks to investigate the detailed interactions between tibiofemoral joint multi-planar kinematics and anterior cruciate ligament strain in a cadaveric model of landing using a validated physiologic drop-stand apparatus. Sixteen instrumented cadaveric legs, mean 45(SD 7) years (8 female and 8 male) were tested. Event timing sequence, change in tibiofemoral kinematics (position, angular velocity and linear acceleration) and change in anterior cruciate ligament strain were quantified. The proposed cadaveric model demonstrated similar tibiofemoral kinematics/kinetics as reported measurements obtained from in vivo studies. While knee flexion, anterior tibial translation, knee abduction and increased anterior cruciate ligament strain initiated and reached maximum values almost simultaneously, internal tibial rotation initiated and peaked significantly later (P<0.015 for all comparisons). Further, internal tibial rotation reached mean 1.8(SD 2.5)°, almost 63% of its maximum value, at the time that peak anterior cruciate ligament strain occurred, while both anterior tibial translation and knee abduction had already reached their peaks. Together, these findings indicate that although internal tibial rotation contributes to increased anterior cruciate ligament strain, it is secondary to knee abduction and anterior tibial translation in its effect on anterior cruciate ligament strain and potential risk of injury.
    Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) 10/2013; 29(1). DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2013.10.017 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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