Article

Adipocyte hypertrophy in stromelysin-3 deficient mice with nutritionally induced obesity.

Center for Molecular and Vascular Biology, University of Leuven, Belgium.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis (Impact Factor: 5.76). 04/2002; 87(3):530-5.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including the stromelysins MMP-3 and MMP-11, are expressed in adipose tissue. To investigate a potential role of MMP-11 (stromelysin-3) in adipose tissue development, five-week-old male wild-type mice (MMP-11+/+) or mice with deficiency of MMP-11 (MMP-11-/-) were fed a high fat diet (HFD, 42% fat) for 15 weeks. Haematologic parameters, including white and red blood cells, platelets, haemoglobin and haematocrit, and metabolic parameters including glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol were not different for both genotypes. At the time of sacrifice, the body weight of the MMP-11-/- mice was higher than that of the MMP-11+/+ mice (36+/-1.4 g versus 29+/-0.9 g, p = 0.0002). The weight of the isolated subcutaneous (SC) and gonadal (GON) fat deposits was also higher in MMP-11-/- mice (620+/-150 mg versus 280+/-28 mg for SC fat, and 970+/-180 mg versus 430+/-62 mg, p < 0.05, for GON fat). Adipocytes in MMP-11-/- adipose tissue were hypertrophic as compared to MMP-11+/+ adipocytes (volume of 57+/-12 x 10(3) microm3 versus 31+/-2.4 x 10(3) microm3 for SC fat, and 100+/-18 x 10(3) microm3 versus 57+/-7.6 x 10(3) microm3 for GON fat; both p < 0.06). In nutritionally induced obesity models in mice a potential role of the fibrinolytic system was suggested in adipocyte hypertrophy. The hypertrophy observed in this model is, however, not related to changes in fibrinolytic parameters, as suggested by our finding that levels of t-PA, u-PA and PAI-1 antigen as well as t-PA and u-PA activity were not different in SC or GON adipose tissue extracts of both genotypes. As the main biological function of MMP-11 remains unknown, it is not clear whether the adipocyte hypertrophy in MMP-11-/- adipose tissue is directly related to the deficiency or to other pathways affected by MMP-11.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
82 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue plays an essential role in regulating energy balance through its metabolic, cellular and endocrine functions. Adipose tissue has been historically classified into anabolic white adipose tissue and catabolic brown adipose tissue. An explosion of new data, however, points to the remarkable heterogeneity among the cells types that can become adipocytes, as well as the inherent metabolic plasticity of mature cells. These data indicate that targeting cellular and metabolic plasticity of adipose tissue might provide new avenues for treatment of obesity-related diseases. This review will discuss the developmental origins of adipose tissue, the cellular complexity of adipose tissues, and the identification of progenitors that contribute to adipogenesis throughout development. We will touch upon the pathological remodelling of adipose tissue and discuss how our understanding of adipose tissue remodeling can uncover new therapeutic targets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Modulation of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2013; 1842(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.05.011 · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review article focuses on the emerging role of tumor resident adipocytes. It provides in vitro and in vivo evidence that they are essential for cancer development/progression. In addition to systemic effects, their tumor-promoting impact is dependent on local functions, notably via a complex adipocyte cancer cell paracrine loop (ACCPL). Indeed, this event leads to dramatic phenotypic and/or functional modifications of both cell types as well as of the extracellular matrix. Adipocytes undergo delipidation leading to adipocytes/cancer-associated adipocytes/cancer-associated fibroblasts de-differentiation processes. In turn, cancer cell aggressiveness is exacerbated through increased proliferation, migration, and invasion properties. This is accompanied by intense tissue remodeling, conducting to the occurrence of the tumor stroma. The molecular pathways involved in ACCPL remain largely unknown. Nevertheless, several clues are starting to emerge. Moreover, obesity is currently a sign of increased risk and poor prognosis in human carcinomas. How adiposopathy might impact tumors and specifically the ACCPL is still under investigation. However, available experimental, epidemiological, and clinical data allow to draw some directions. Interestingly, there are numerous similarities between the ACCPL-induced and obesity-related molecular alterations. It might, therefore, be hypothesized that obesity provides a "constitutively active" local permissive environment for cancer cells. Improving our knowledge about ACCPL in both lean and obese patients remains a challenging task. Indeed, deciphering the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind ACCPL might provide new targets for improving diagnosis/prognosis and the design of innovative therapeutic strategies, and even, in case of obesity, for preventing cancer.
    Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation 01/2015; 21(1):43-56. DOI:10.1515/hmbci-2014-0044
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MMP-11 is a bad prognosis paracrine factor in invasive breast cancers. However, its mammary physiological function remains largely unknown. In the present study we have investigated MMP-11 function during postnatal mammary gland development and function using MMP-11-deficient (MMP-11-/-) mice. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses as well as whole-mount mammary gland staining show alteration of the mammary gland in the absence of MMP-11, where ductal tree, alveolar structures and milk production are reduced. Moreover, a series of transplantation experiments allowed us to demonstrate that MMP-11 exerts an essential local paracrine function that favors mammary gland branching and epithelial cell outgrowth and invasion through adjacent connective tissues. Indeed, MMP-11-/- cleared fat pads are not permissive for wild-type epithelium development, whereas MMP-11-/- epithelium transplants grow normally when implanted in wild-type cleared fat pads. In addition, using primary mammary epithelial organoids, we show in vitro that this MMP-11 pro-branching effect is not direct, suggesting that MMP-11 acts via production/release of stroma-associated soluble factor(s). Finally, the lack of MMP-11 leads to decreased periductal collagen content, suggesting that MMP-11 has a role in collagen homeostasis. Thus, local stromal MMP-11 might also regulate mammary epithelial cell behavior mechanically by promoting extracellular matrix stiffness. Collectively, the present data indicate that MMP-11 is a paracrine factor involved during postnatal mammary gland morphogenesis, and support the concept that the stroma strongly impact epithelial cell behavior. Interestingly, stromal MMP-11 has previously been reported to favor malignant epithelial cell survival and promote cancer aggressiveness. Thus, MMP-11 has a paracrine function during mammary gland development that might be harnessed to promote tumor progression, exposing a new link between development and malignancy.Oncogene advance online publication, 21 October 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.434.
    Oncogene 10/2013; DOI:10.1038/onc.2013.434 · 8.56 Impact Factor