Comparison of carbohydrate and milk-based beverages on muscle damage and glycogen following exercise.
ABSTRACT This study examined effects of carbohydrate (CHO), milk-based carbohydrate-protein (CHO-PRO), or placebo (P) beverages on glycogen resynthesis, muscle damage, inflammation, and muscle function following eccentric resistance exercise. Untrained males performed a cycling exercise to reduce muscle glycogen 12 hours prior to performance of 100 eccentric quadriceps contractions at 120% of 1-RM (day 1) and drank CHO (n = 8), CHO-PRO (n = 9; 5 kcal/kg), or P (n = 9) immediately and 2 hours post-exercise. At 3 hours post-eccentric exercise, serum insulin was four times higher for CHO-PRO and CHO than P (p < .05). Serum creatine kinase (CK) increased for all groups in the 6 hours post-eccentric exercise (p < .01), with the increase tending to be lowest for CHO-PRO (p < .08) during this period. Glycogen was low post-exercise (33+/-3.7 mmol/kg ww), increased 225% at 24 hours, and tripled by 72 hours, with no group differences. The eccentric exercise increased muscle protein breakdown as indicated by urinary 3-methylhistidine and increased IL-6 with no effect of beverage. Quadriceps isokinetic peak torque was depressed similarly for all groups by 24% 24 hours post-exercise and remained 21% lower at 72 hours (p < .01). In summary, there were no influences of any post-exercise beverage on muscle glycogen replacement, inflammation, or muscle function.
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ABSTRACT: Intense or prolonged exercise and/or heat stress might affect the immune system creating a response similar to trauma or inflammation, resulting in an increase in the susceptibility to viral infections. For example, during prolonged exercise, inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and the stress hormone cortisol are produced and released. Although there have been several studies examining the effects of nutritional supplementation on cytokine release in elite athletes, few studies have investigated the effects of different energy drinks during exercise in adverse environmental conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, and the stress hormone cortisol, during prolonged cycling under hot environmental conditions while ingesting fluid that contains a ratio of 4:1 carbohydrates and protein (4:1 CHO/PRO) versus a carbohydrate-only drink (CHO). Six male cyclists (aged 27 ± 8 years; weight 75.5 ± 3.4 kg; VO2max = 66 ± 2.7 mL/kg/min, mean ± standard error) rode on a stationary ergometer on two separate sessions for 2.5 hours at 75% VO2max in an environmental chamber set at 35°C and 60% relative humidity. During the first session the cyclists were given 4 mL/kg body weight of a 6% carbohydrate solution every 15 minutes. During the second session they were given 4 mL/kg body weight of a 4:1 carbohydrate/protein drink every 15 minutes. Subjects were not aware of which drink they were given in each trial. Blood samples were taken pre-, immediately post-, and 12 hours post-exercise. SPSS (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY) was utilized to analyze data through repeated measures analysis of variance. No significant main effect was observed between treatments in either cortisol (P = 0.97), IL-6 (P = 0.64), or TNF-α (P = 0.37) responses. Total cortisol concentrations were significantly elevated (P < 0.05) immediately post-exercise, and from pre- to 12 hours post-exercise with both the 4:1 CHO/PRO and the CHO-alone solutions. TNF-α concentrations were only significantly (P = 0.045) elevated post-exercise with the CHO-alone solution. A significant (P < 0.05) elevation of IL-6 was seen immediately post-exercise and 12 hours post-exercise with both the CHO-alone and 4:1 CHO/PRO solutions. Consuming a 4:1 CHO/PRO solution during prolonged cycling under hot environmental conditions has comparable effects on inflammatory cytokines to drinking a CHO-alone solution.Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine 01/2012; 3:21-6.
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ABSTRACT: Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) leads to decrements in muscle performance, increases in intramuscular proteins and delayed-onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). Previous research demonstrated that one litre of milk-based protein-carbohydrate (CHO) consumed immediately following muscle damaging exercise can limit changes in markers of EIMD possibly due to attenuating protein degradation and/or increasing protein synthesis. If the attenuation of EIMD is derived from changes in protein metabolism then it can be hypothesised that consuming a smaller volume of CHO and protein will elicit similar effects. Three independent matched groups of 8 males consumed 500 mL of milk, 1,000 mL of milk or a placebo immediately following muscle damaging exercise. Passive and active DOMS, isokinetic muscle performance, creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin and interleukin-6 were assessed immediately before and 24, 48 and 72 h after EIMD. After 72 h 1,000 mL of milk had a likely benefit for limiting decrements in peak torque compared to the placebo. After 48 h, 1,000 mL of milk had a very likely benefit of limiting increases in CK in comparison to the placebo. There were no differences between consuming 500 or 1,000 mL of milk for changes in peak torque and CK. In conclusion, decrements in isokinetic muscle performance and increases in CK can be limited with the consumption of 500 mL of milk.Arbeitsphysiologie 01/2012; 112(9):3187-94. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) leads to increases in intramuscular proteins observed in the blood stream and delayed-onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), but crucial for athletes are the decrements in muscle performance observed. Previous research has demonstrated that carbohydrate-protein supplements limit these decrements; however, they have primarily used isokinetic dynamometry which has limited applicability to dynamic sport settings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a carbohydrate-protein milk supplement consumed following muscle damaging exercise on performance tests specific to field-based team sports. Methods: Two independent groups of 7 males consumed either 500 mL of milk or a control immediately following muscle damaging exercise. Passive and active DOMS, creatine kinase, myoglobin, countermovement jump height, reactive strength index, 15 m sprint and agility time were assessed before and 24, 48 and 72 h after EIMD. The Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) was also performed before and 48 h post EIMD. Results: At 48 h milk had a possible benefit for limiting increases in 10 m sprint time and a likely benefit of attenuating increases in mean 15 m sprint time during the LIST. At 72 h milk had a possible benefit for limiting increases in 15 m sprint time and a likely benefit for attenuation of increases in agility time. All other effects for measured variables were unclear. Conclusion: In conclusion, the consumption of milk limits decrements in one-off sprinting and agility performance, and the ability to perform repeated sprints during the physiological simulation of field-based team sports.Medicine and science in sports and exercise 03/2013; · 3.71 Impact Factor