Comparison of carbohydrate and milk-based beverage on muscle damage and glycogen following exercise

Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg 24061, USA.
International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism (Impact Factor: 2.44). 01/2002; 11(4):406-19.
Source: PubMed


This study examined effects of carbohydrate (CHO), milk-based carbohydrate-protein (CHO-PRO), or placebo (P) beverages on glycogen resynthesis, muscle damage, inflammation, and muscle function following eccentric resistance exercise. Untrained males performed a cycling exercise to reduce muscle glycogen 12 hours prior to performance of 100 eccentric quadriceps contractions at 120% of 1-RM (day 1) and drank CHO (n = 8), CHO-PRO (n = 9; 5 kcal/kg), or P (n = 9) immediately and 2 hours post-exercise. At 3 hours post-eccentric exercise, serum insulin was four times higher for CHO-PRO and CHO than P (p < .05). Serum creatine kinase (CK) increased for all groups in the 6 hours post-eccentric exercise (p < .01), with the increase tending to be lowest for CHO-PRO (p < .08) during this period. Glycogen was low post-exercise (33+/-3.7 mmol/kg ww), increased 225% at 24 hours, and tripled by 72 hours, with no group differences. The eccentric exercise increased muscle protein breakdown as indicated by urinary 3-methylhistidine and increased IL-6 with no effect of beverage. Quadriceps isokinetic peak torque was depressed similarly for all groups by 24% 24 hours post-exercise and remained 21% lower at 72 hours (p < .01). In summary, there were no influences of any post-exercise beverage on muscle glycogen replacement, inflammation, or muscle function.

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    • "In this regard, supplementation with protein during post-exercise recovery from muscle-damaging ECC has recently been suggested to reduce the magnitude and duration of strength decline (Buckley et al. 2010; Cooke et al. 2010) and muscle soreness (Jackman et al. 2010). However, whereas two of these studies observe attenuation in muscle force loss with whey protein supplements rich in branched chain amino acids (BCAA) (Buckley et al. 2010; Cooke et al. 2010), another study utilizing BCAA supplementation, observed no effect on recovery of muscle force (Jackman et al. 2010), so the impact of added dietary supplements remains equivocal at this point (Pasiakos et al. 2014; Wojcik et al. 2001). Other than differences in exercise protocols, differences in results between studies likely derive from different compositions of supplements. "
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    ABSTRACT: Unaccustomed high-intensity eccentric exercise (ECC) can provoke muscle damage including several days of muscle force loss. Post-exercise dietary supplementation may provide a strategy to accelerate rate of force regain by affecting mechanisms related to muscle protein turnover. The aim of the current study was to investigate if protein signaling mechanisms involved in muscle protein turnover would be differentially affected by supplementation with either whey protein hydrolysate and carbohydrate (WPH+CHO) versus isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO) after muscle-damaging ECC. Twenty-four young healthy participants received either WPH+CHO (n = 12) or CHO supplements (n = 12) during post-exercise recovery from 150 maximal unilateral eccentric contractions. Prior to, at 3 h and at 24, 48, 96 and/or 168 h post-exercise, muscle strength, muscle soreness, and Akt-mTOR and FOXO signaling proteins, were measured in an ECC exercising leg and in the contralateral non-exercise control leg (CON). After ECC, muscle force decreased by 23–27 % at 24 h post-exercise, which was followed by gradual, although not full recovery at 168 h post-exercise, with no differences between supplement groups. Phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6K and rpS6 increased and phosphorylation of FOXO1 and FOXO3 decreased in the ECC leg, with no differences between supplement groups. Phosphorylation changes were also observed for rpS6, FOXO1 and FOXO3a in the CON leg, suggesting occurrence of remote tissue effects. In conclusion, divergent dietary supplementation types did not produce differences in signaling for muscle turnover during recovery from muscle-damaging exercise.
    Amino Acids 01/2015; 47(4). DOI:10.1007/s00726-014-1907-8 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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    • "Co-ingestion of protein and carbohydrate (PRO/CHO) before and during exercise has been shown to inhibit muscle protein degradation during and post-exercise during resistance type exercise [7,8], and attenuates indirect markers of muscle damage such as CK [9]. However, not all studies have found such promising results, with reports of no significant differences in muscle soreness, CK or myoglobin levels post-exercise following the ingestion of PRO/CHO compared to carbohydrate alone or water [10-14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Attenuating muscle damage is important to subsequent sports performance. It is possible that pre-exercise protein intake could influence markers of muscle damage and benefit performance, however, published research provides conflicting results. At present no study has investigated protein and carbohydrate (PRO/CHO) co-ingestion solely pre-exercise, nor prior to basketball-specific exercise. The purpose of this study was to answer the research question; would pre-exercise protein intake enhance performance or attenuate muscle damage during a basketball simulation test? Methods: Ten well-trained male basketball players consumed either carbohydrate (1 g · kg(-1) body mass) with protein (1 g · kg(-1) body mass), or carbohydrate alone (2 g · kg(-1) body mass) in a randomised cross- over design, 90 minutes before completing an 87-minute exercise protocol. Results: The rise in creatine kinase (CK) from baseline to post-exercise was attenuated following PRO/CHO (56 ± 13U · L(-1)) compared to carbohydrate (100 ± 10 U · L(-1)), (p = 0.018). Blood glucose was also higher during and post-exercise following PRO/CHO (p < 0.050), as was free throw shooting accuracy in the fourth quarter (p = 0.027). Nausea during (p = 0.007) and post-(p = 0.039) exercise increased following PRO/CHO, as did cortisol post-exercise (p = 0.038). Conclusions: Results suggest that in well-trained basketball players, pre-exercise PRO/CHO may attenuate the rise in CK, indicative of a decrease in muscle damage during exercise. However, unfamiliarity with the protein amount provided may have increased nausea during exercise, and this may have limited the ability to see an improvement in more performance measures.
    Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 06/2014; 11(1):33. DOI:10.1186/1550-2783-11-33 · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    • "There is already a strong body of scientific evidence showing that the simultaneous ingestion of CHO and protein may attenuate muscle damage (Baty et al., 2007; Bird et al., 2006; Cockburn et al., 2008, 2010; Doyle et al., 1993; Luden et al., 2007; Pritchett et al., 2009; Romano-Ely et al., 2006; Samadi et al., 2012; Saunders et al., 2004, 2007, 2009; Skillen et al., 2008; Valentine et al., 2008), suggesting that the combination of these two macronutrients can be a valuable strategy. However, some studies (Breen et al., 2010; Green et al., 2008; White et al., 2008; Wojcik et al., 2001) do no support these findings. The possible reasons for these discrepancies are (i) the inherent inter-individual variability for indirect systemic markers of muscle damage, namely CK (Betts & Williams, 2010), which was the only blood parameter used to assess muscle damage in the four studies that did not find positive results, and (ii) the different exercise protocols applied. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Exhaustive or unaccustomed intense exercise can cause exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and its undesirable consequences may decrease the ability to exercise and to adhere to a training programme. This review briefly summarises the muscle damage process, focusing predominantly on oxidative stress and inflammation as contributing factors, and describes how nutrition may be positively used to recover from EIMD. The combined intake of carbohydrates and proteins and the use of antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory nutrients within physiological ranges are interventions that may assist the recovery process. Although the works studying food instead of nutritional supplements are very scarce, their results seem to indicate that food might be a favourable option as a recovery strategy. To date, the only tested foods were milk, cherries, blueberries and pomegranate with promising results. Other potential solutions are foods rich in protein, carbohydrates, antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory nutrients.
    International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 11/2013; 65(2). DOI:10.3109/09637486.2013.849662 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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