Norwalk-like virus sequences in mineral waters: One-year monitoring of three brands

Cantonal Food Laboratory of Solothurn, CH-4500 Solothurn, Switzerland.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.95). 05/2002; 68(4):1925-31. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.68.4.1925-1931.2002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In a recent study, RNA with nucleotide sequeces specific for "Norwalk-like viruses" (NLV) was detected in 11 different brands of European mineral waters. To clarify this finding, a 1-year monitoring study was conducted. Samples of three European brands of mineral water without gas were monitored weekly by reverse transcriptase PCR using generic and genogroup-specific oligonucleotides. Additional analyses were performed to investigate a possible correlation between NLV sequence contamination and mineral water lot numbers, the long-term stability (persistence) of NLV sequences in mineral water, and the level of contamination. NLV sequences were detected in 53 of 159 samples analyzed (33%) and belonged entirely to genogroup II. Although all NLV strains identified were closely related, three mineral water brand-specific clusters could be identified for both primer systems by sequencing. Analyses of second samples from lots previously shown to be positive for NLV sequences gave corresponding results in 45 of 53 cases (85%) (within a six-pack). NLV persistence was tested by analyzing 10 positive samples after 6 and 12 months of storage in darkness at room temperature. After 6 months, all samples remained positive; after 12 months, 9 of 10 samples were still positive for NLV sequences. No NLV sequences could be detected by analysis of 0.1-liter aliquots of 53 samples shown to be positive by testing of 1-liter volumes. Based on this fact and a test sensitivity of approximately 10 viral units, levels of contamination in positive mineral water samples were estimated to be in the range of 10 to 100 genomic equivalents per liter.

Download full-text


Available from: Christian Beuret, Feb 07, 2014
  • Source
    • "Reverse transcription was carried out using random primers (Invitrogen ® , Carlsbad, CA, USA). For NoV detection, generic primers (Mon431/Mon432 and Mon433/Mon434) that target the region B of the ORF1 (RdRp gene) [7], were used according to the conditions described by Beuret et al. [19]. The molecular characterization was performed by using degenerated primers CapA/CapB1/CapB2 and CapC/CapD1/CapD3 that target the VP1 gene (region D) as described by Vinjé et al. [9]; and the primers JV12Y, JV12i, Ni-R and G1 that target the RdRp gene as described previously by Boxman et al. [10]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Noroviruses (NoV) have been shown to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide, only second after Group A rotaviruses (RVA). In Paraguay, acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is the third cause of mortality in children ≤5 years old. To analyze the presence and diversity of NoV in Paraguayan children ≤5 years old presenting AGE. Three hundred seventy eight fecal samples, negative for pathogenic bacteria and RVA, were collected from children admitted as ambulatory and hospitalized patients in a large private hospital from Asuncion, Paraguay from 2004 to 2005. The presence and diversity of NoV was determined by two different RT-PCR strategies and nucleotide sequencing. One hundred and sixty one samples were positive for NoV by partial amplification of the viral polymerase gene (RdRp). No seasonality or differences in the viral prevalence for the different age-groups were detected. GII and GI NoVs were associated to 58% and 42% of the infections, respectively. The genotype was determined in 18% (29/161) NoV-positive samples. The genotypes detected were: GII.4 (18%), GII.17 (18%), GII.6 (14%), GII.7 (14%), GII.3 (10%), GII.5 (3%), GII.8 (3%), GII.16 (3%), GI.3 (14%) and GI.8 (3%). Amplification of the ORF2 from the GII.4 strains showed the presence of a new GII.4 variant. The results showed a continuous circulation of NoV in children throughout the two years of study and an extensive diversity of genotypes co-circulating, highlighting the need for better surveillance of NoV in Paraguayan children.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 08/2013; 58(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2013.07.008 · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "NoVs are environmentally stable, able to endure both freezing and heating (although not thorough cooking), are resistant to several chemical disinfectants and can persist on surfaces for up to 2 weeks (Hall et al. 2011). Two studies have confirmed the presence of RNA specific for NoV in different brands of European mineral water, thus indicating that bottled water could also be an important source of the viral infection (Beuret et al. 2002; Kovać et al. 2009). NoVs have now become the leading cause of endemic diarrhoeal disease across all age groups (Hall et al. 2011), the leading cause of foodborne disease (Scallan et al. 2011), and the cause of half of all GE outbreaks worldwide (Patel et al. 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In recent years, the impending impact of waterborne pathogens on human health has become a growing concern. Drinking water and recreational exposure to polluted water have shown to be linked to viral infections, since viruses are shed in extremely high numbers in the faeces and vomit of infected individuals and are routinely introduced into the water environment. All of the identified pathogenic viruses that pose a significant public health threat in the water environment are transmitted via the faecal-oral route. This group, are collectively known as enteric viruses, and their possible health effects include gastroenteritis, paralysis, meningitis, hepatitis, respiratory illness and diarrhoea. This review addresses both past and recent investigations into viral contamination of surface waters, with emphasis on six types of potential waterborne human pathogenic viruses. In addition, the viral associated illnesses are outlined with reference to their pathogenesis and routes of transmission.
    International Journal of Environmental Health Research 02/2013; 23(6). DOI:10.1080/09603123.2013.769205 · 1.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The study indicated that the average heterotrophic plate count represented only a fraction (< 3.65%) of the total flow cytometric analysis (FCM) counts and < 6.06% of the viable FCM count. Beuret et al. (2002) monitored three brands of natural mineral waters in Europe over a one year period to investigate and identify the microbial flora present. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The microbial contamination in a spring water distribution system in the Western Cape, South Africa was investigated. Sampling at various points from the spring and throughout the bottling system started in February and continued until November 2004. The number of culturable cells was determined using the heterotrophic plate count (HPC) and total microbial counts were evaluated by flow cytometric analysis (FCM). Heterotrophic plate counts in the final bottled water ranged from 1.34 x 108 cfu/ml (week 1) to 5 x 104 cfu/ml (week 46). In comparison, the total cell counts (FCM) ranged from 2.09 x 108 microorganisms/ml (week 1) to 5.70 x 107 microorganisms/ml (week 46).The higher FCM counts indicated that the flow cytometry technique was able to detect viable but non-culturable organisms in the water and was thus more reliable for the routine quantitative enumeration of microbial populations in water samples. 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) of the bacterial species present was amplified with PCR and phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbour-joining algorithm. The sequenced isolates from the various water samples belonged to the major groups Bacillus sp, and Enterobacteriaceae and included Shigella boydii, Serratia sp., Enterobacter asburiae and Pseudomonas sp.
    African journal of microbiology research 09/2011; Vol. 5(20):3200-3214. · 0.54 Impact Factor
Show more