The anti-HIV pentameric pseudopeptide HB-19 binds the C-terminal end of nucleolin and prevents anchorage of virus particles in the plasma membrane of target cells.
ABSTRACT The multivalent pseudopeptide HB-19 that binds the cell-surface-expressed nucleolin is a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by blocking virus particle attachment and thus anchorage in the plasma membrane. We show that cross-linking of surface-bound HB-19A (like HB-19 but with a modified template) results in aggregation of HB-19A with surface nucleolin. Consistent with its specific action, HB-19A binding to different types of cells reaches saturation at concentrations that have been reported to result in inhibition of HIV infection. By using Chinese hamster ovary mutant cell lines, we confirm that the binding of HB-19A to surface nucleolin is independent of heparan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. In vitro generated full-length nucleolin was found to bind HB-19A, whereas the N-terminal part containing the acidic amino acid stretches of nucleolin did not. The use of various deletion constructs of the C-terminal part of nucleolin then permitted the identification of the extreme C-terminal end of nucleolin, containing repeats of the amino acid motif, RGG, as the domain that binds HB-19A. Finally, a synthetic peptide corresponding to the last C-terminal 63 amino acids was able to inhibit HIV infection at the stage of HIV attachment to cells, thus suggesting that this domain could be functional in the HIV anchorage process.
Article: Differential activity of candidate microbicides against early steps of HIV-1 infection upon complement virus opsonization.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: HIV-1 in genital secretions may be opsonized by several molecules including complement components. Opsonized HIV-1 by complement enhances the infection of various mucosal target cells, such as dendritic cells (DC) and epithelial cells. We herein evaluated the effect of HIV-1 complement opsonization on microbicide candidates' activity, by using three in vitro mucosal models: CCR5-tropic HIV-1JR-CSF transcytosis through epithelial cells, HIV-1JR-CSF attachment on immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMDDC), and infectivity of iMDDC by CCR5-tropic HIV-1BaL and CXCR4-tropic HIV-1NDK. A panel of 10 microbicide candidates [T20, CADA, lectines HHA & GNA, PVAS, human lactoferrin, and monoclonal antibodies IgG1B12, 12G5, 2G12 and 2F5], were investigated using cell-free unopsonized or opsonized HIV-1 by complements. Only HHA and PVAS were able to inhibit HIV trancytosis. Upon opsonization, transcytosis was affected only by HHA, HIV-1 adsorption on iMDDC by four molecules (lactoferrin, IgG1B12, IgG2G5, IgG2G12), and replication in iMDDC of HIV-1BaL by five molecules (lactoferrin, CADA, T20, IgG1B12, IgG2F5) and of HIV-1NDK by two molecules (lactoferrin, IgG12G5). These observations demonstrate that HIV-1 opsonization by complements may modulate in vitro the efficiency of candidate microbicides to inhibit HIV-1 infection of mucosal target cells, as well as its crossing through mucosa.AIDS Research and Therapy 01/2010; 7:16. · 2.54 Impact Factor
Article: Targeting surface nucleolin with a multivalent pseudopeptide delays development of spontaneous melanoma in RET transgenic mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The importance of cell-surface nucleolin in cancer biology was recently highlighted by studies showing that ligands of nucleolin play critical role in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. By using a specific antagonist that binds the C-terminal tail of nucleolin, the HB-19 pseudopeptide, we recently reported that HB-19 treatment markedly suppressed the progression of established human breast tumor cell xenografts in the athymic nude mice without apparent toxicity. The in vivo antitumoral action of HB-19 treatment was assessed on the spontaneous development of melanoma in the RET transgenic mouse model. Ten days old RET mice were treated with HB-19 in a prophylactic setting that extended 300 days. In parallel, the molecular basis for the action of HB-19 was investigated on a melanoma cell line (called TIII) derived from a cutaneous nodule of a RET mouse. HB-19 treatment of RET mice caused a significant delay in the onset of cutaneous tumors, several-months delay in the incidence of large tumors, a lower frequency of cutaneous nodules, and a reduction of visceral metastatic nodules while displaying no toxicity to normal tissue. Moreover, microvessel density was significantly reduced in tumors recovered from HB-19 treated mice compared to corresponding controls. Studies on the melanoma-derived tumor cells demonstrated that HB-19 treatment of TIII cells could restore contact inhibition, impair anchorage-independent growth, and reduce their tumorigenic potential in mice. Moreover, HB-19 treatment caused selective down regulation of transcripts coding matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the TIII cells and in melanoma tumors of RET mice. Although HB-19 treatment failed to prevent the development of spontaneous melanoma in the RET mice, it delayed for several months the onset and frequency of cutaneous tumors, and exerted a significant inhibitory effect on visceral metastasis. Consequently, HB-19 could provide a novel therapeutic agent by itself or as an adjuvant therapy in association with current therapeutic interventions on a virulent cancer like melanoma.BMC Cancer 01/2010; 10:325. · 3.01 Impact Factor
Article: Surface expressed nucleolin is constantly induced in tumor cells to mediate calcium-dependent ligand internalization.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nucleolin is one of the major proteins of the nucleolus, but it is also expressed on the cell surface where is serves as a binding protein for variety of ligands implicated in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. Emerging evidence suggests that the cell-surface expressed nucleolin is a strategic target for an effective and nontoxic cancer therapy. By monitoring the expression of nucleolin mRNA, and by measuring the level of nucleolin protein recovered from the surface and nucleus of cells, here we show that the presence of nucleolin at the cell surface is dependent on the constant induction of nucleolin mRNA. Indeed, inhibitors of RNA transcription or translation block expression of surface nucleolin while no apparent effect is observed on the level of nucleolin in the nucleus. The estimated half-life of surface nucleolin is less than one hour, whereas that of nuclear nucleolin is more than 8 hours. Nucleolin mRNA induction is reduced markedly in normal fibroblasts that reach confluence, while it occurs continuously even in post-confluent epithelial tumor cells consistent with their capacity to proliferate without contact inhibition. Interestingly, cold and heat shock induce nucleolin mRNA concomitantly to enhanced mRNA expression of the heat shock protein 70, thus suggesting that surface nucleolin induction also occurs in response to an environmental insult. At the cell surface, one of the main functions of nucleolin is to shuttle specific extracellular ligands by an active transport mechanism, which we show here to be calcium dependent. Our results demonstrate that the expression of surface nucleolin is an early metabolic event coupled with tumor cell proliferation and stress response. The fact that surface nucleolin is constantly and abundantly expressed on the surface of tumor cells, makes them a preferential target for the inhibitory action of anticancer agents that target surface nucleolin.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(12):e15787. · 4.09 Impact Factor