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Available from: Jenny E. Gunton, Aug 12, 2014
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    • "Previous findings from the H-EPESE showed that foreign-born Mexican Americans were at higher risk for incidence of macro and micro vascular complications that would explain the association with poor glycemic control (Kaushik et al., 2007). Another previous study showed an association between smoking and poor glycemic control (Gunton et al., 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the prevalence and correlates of poor glycemic control in Mexican Americans aged 75 years and older with diabetes. Data are from the 5(th) wave (2004-05) of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (H-EPESE). A total of 2,069 Mexican Americans aged 75 and over were interviewed. Six hundred eighty nine subjects (33.5%) reported having been diagnosed with diabetes and 209 (30.3%) subjects agreed to a blood test of their HbA(1)c level. Of the 209 diabetic subjects with an HbA(1)c test, 73 (34.9%) had good glycemic control (HbA(1)c <7%) and 136 (65.1%) had poor glycemic control (HbA(1)c >7%). Bivariate analysis revealed that subjects with poor control had longer disease duration, had lower education, used the glucometer more frequently, and had more diabetes-complications when compared to those in the good glycemic control group. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found the following factors associated with poor glycemic control: <8 years of education, foreign-born, smoking, obesity, longer disease duration, daily glucometer use, and having macro-complications. Prevalence of poor glycemic control is very high in this population with very high and rising prevalence of diabetes. Further studies are needed to explore the effect of these and other characteristics on glycemic control among older Mexican Americans and to develop appropriate interventions to improve diabetes outcomes and increase life-expectancy.
    Journal of diabetes and its complications 04/2012; 26(3):181-6. DOI:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2012.03.010 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin need for a given degree of glucose control varies markedly among individuals. We examined which factors determine daily insulin use in patients with Type 1 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was performed in 416 patients. Clinical parameters, medication use, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and laboratory parameters were determined. Body mass index and waist circumference were positively related to daily insulin use (2.3 U/kg/m(2), 95% CI=1.9-2.7 and 0.8 U/cm, 95% CI=0.6-0.9, adjusted for age and sex). Age, female sex, and duration of diabetes were inversely related to daily insulin dose. There was an increase of 3.6 U of insulin per mmol/l triglycerides (95% CI=1.04-6.2) and a decrease of 5.9 U of insulin per mmol/l high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% CI=-10.0 to -1.8), adjusted for age, sex, and weight. For blood pressure-lowering drugs, the strongest relation was found for thiazide diuretics (difference of 7.1 U insulin/day, 95% CI=0.2-14.2, adjusted for age, sex, and weight). The use of an insulin pump and physical activity were related to lower daily insulin need: -8.7 U/day (95% CI=-11.8 to -5.5) and -1.7 U/day per activity score unit (95% CI=-3.2 to -0.2), respectively, adjusted for age, sex, and weight. Smoking was related to an increased need of 5.3 U/day (95% CI=1.5-9.0), adjusted for age, sex, and weight. Our results show that components of the metabolic syndrome are positively related to daily insulin use. Also, decreased physical activity, smoking, and the use of blood pressure-lowering drugs, which influence insulin sensitivity, are associated with an increased insulin need. These findings suggest that the presence of insulin resistance in Type 1 diabetes or "double diabetes" plays a key role in determining daily insulin need.
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 11/2006; 20(6):356-60. DOI:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2005.08.006 · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy may increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or pregestational diabetes mellitus (PDM). Smoking has been associated positively with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in experimental studies, although the association with diabetes remains unclear. To further explore this issue, we examined the association with smoking in the largest prospective cohort study of GDM and PDM to date. The study population comprised 212190 women in the population-based Swedish Birth Registry who had their first and second deliveries between January 1987 and December 1995. Maternal characteristics were recorded in a standardized manner at the first prenatal visit, followed by a clinical examination and a standardized in-person interview to assess lifestyle habits. Women were categorized as nonsmokers, light smokers (one to nine cigarettes per day), or moderate-to-heavy smokers (at least 10 cigarettes per day). Women with GDM in their first pregnancy experienced an eight- to ninefold increased risk of GDM or PDM in their second pregnancy. Cigarette smoking was not associated with increased risk of these conditions. Neither women who smoked during their first and second pregnancies nor those who commenced smoking between pregnancies had a higher risk of GDM or PDM than nonsmokers. Our findings do not support an association between cigarette smoking and risk of GDM or PDM in young women of childbearing age.
    Diabetes Care 11/2003; 26(11):2994-8. DOI:10.2337/diacare.26.11.2994 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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