Ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacter jejuni evolves rapidly in chickens treated with fluoroquinolones
ABSTRACT Fluoroquinolones are commonly used to treat gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter species. Domestically acquired fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter infection has been documented recently in the United States. It has been proposed that the increase in resistance is due, in part, to the use of fluoroquinolones in poultry. In separate experiments, the effects of sarafloxacin and enrofloxacin treatment of Campylobacter jejuni-infected chickens on the development of ciprofloxacin resistance were measured. Fecal samples were collected before and after treatment and were cultured for C. jejuni. When enrofloxacin or sarafloxacin was used at US Food and Drug Administration-approved doses in broiler chickens, resistance developed rapidly and persisted in C. jejuni. MICs of ciprofloxacin increased from a base of 0.25 microg/mL to 32 microg/mL within the 5-day treatment time frame. These results show that the use of these drugs in chickens rapidly selects for resistant Campylobacter organisms and may result in less effective fluoroquinolone therapy for cases of human campylobacteriosis acquired from exposure to contaminated chicken.
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ABSTRACT: In the present study Campylobacter species and their antimicrobial resistance in Latvian broiler chicken production was determined. Furthermore, this is the first report on the antimicrobial resistance patterns for Campylobacter isolates from broiler chickens at slaughterhouse and retail level in Latvia. Two biggest Latvian broiler chicken meat producing company products were included in the study. Altogether, 74 randomly selected broiler chicken Campylobacter spp. isolates were analysed for species identification. Campylobacter isolates were obtained during a 12-month period within the Latvian Campylobacter prevalence study in 2010. Colony multiplex PCR was used for all isolates to identify Campylobacter species. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 58 Campylobacter spp. isolates. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in all 58 isolates (100%). A high proportion of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (100%) and nalidixic acid (87.9%). Multidrug resistance, which was determined as resistance to three or more unrelated antimicrobials, was detected in 39 isolates (67.2%). Moreover, all multiresistant isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid. Analyses of Campylobacter isolates from two Latvian broiler chicken meat producing companies resulted with significant differences in Campylobacter species; from the company A mainly Campylobacter coli were found, while in the company B Campylobacter jejuni.Food Control 12/2014; 46:86–90. DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.05.009 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A total of 110 caecal samples were collected from broiler chickens originating from 6 small poultry farms in Bulgaria during the first half of 2009, and (45) Campylobacter jejuni strains were isolated. Twenty four (53.3%) of the C. jejuni isolates were determined as resistant to several antibiotics. The highest percentage of resistance was observed against (tetracycline) 22.2%, (enrofloxacin) 13.4% and (ampicillin) 11.1%. Two strains (4.4%) were resistant to erythromycin. The distribution of isolates on the basis of Minimal Inhibition Concentration revealed the highest value of 64 μg/ml to tetracycline in one of the strains. Four isolates resistant against ampicillin were with MIC of 32 μg/ml, and another one – with MIC 16 μg/ml.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of various enrofloxacin dose regimes on the colonization and selection of resistance in Campylobacter jejuni strain 81116P in experimentally colonized chickens. Two experiments were undertaken, in which 14-day-old chickens were colonized with 1 × 10(7) -1 × 10(9 ) CFU g(-1) Camp. jejuni strain 81116P and then treated with enrofloxacin at 12-500 ppm in drinking water for various times. Caecal colonization levels were determined at various time-points after start-of-treatment, and the susceptibility of recovered isolates to ciprofloxacin was monitored. Resistance was indicated by growth on agar containing 4 μg ml(-1) ciprofloxacin, MICs of 16 μg ml(-1) and the Thr86Ile mutation in gyrA. Enrofloxacin at doses of 12-250 ppm reduced Camp. jejuni colonization over the first 48-72 h after start-of-treatment. The degree of reduction in colonization was dose, but not treatment time, dependent. In all cases, maximal colonization was re-established within 4-6 days. Fluoroquinolone-resistant organisms were recoverable within 48 h of start-of-treatment; after a further 24 h all recovered isolates were resistant. In contrast, a dose of 500 ppm enrofloxacin reduced colonization to undetectable levels within 48 h, and the treated birds remained Campylobacter negative throughout the remaining experimental period. By high pressure liquid chromatography, for all doses, the maximum concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the caecal contents were detected at the point of treatment completion. Thereafter, levels declined to undetectable by 7 days post-treatment withdrawal. In a model using chickens maximally colonized with Camp. jejuni 81116P, treatment with enrofloxacin, at doses of 12-250 ppm in drinking water, enables the selection, and clonal expansion, of fluoroquinolone-resistant organisms. However, this is preventable by treatment with 500 ppm of enrofloxacin. Treatment of chickens with enrofloxacin selects for resistance in Camp. jejuni in highly pre-colonized birds. However, a dose of 500 ppm enrofloxacin prevented the selection of resistant campylobacters.Journal of Applied Microbiology 10/2010; 109(4):1132-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04734.x · 2.39 Impact Factor