Ciprofloxacin resistance in Campylobacter jejuni evolves rapidly in chickens treated with fluoroquinolones
ABSTRACT Fluoroquinolones are commonly used to treat gastroenteritis caused by Campylobacter species. Domestically acquired fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter infection has been documented recently in the United States. It has been proposed that the increase in resistance is due, in part, to the use of fluoroquinolones in poultry. In separate experiments, the effects of sarafloxacin and enrofloxacin treatment of Campylobacter jejuni-infected chickens on the development of ciprofloxacin resistance were measured. Fecal samples were collected before and after treatment and were cultured for C. jejuni. When enrofloxacin or sarafloxacin was used at US Food and Drug Administration-approved doses in broiler chickens, resistance developed rapidly and persisted in C. jejuni. MICs of ciprofloxacin increased from a base of 0.25 microg/mL to 32 microg/mL within the 5-day treatment time frame. These results show that the use of these drugs in chickens rapidly selects for resistant Campylobacter organisms and may result in less effective fluoroquinolone therapy for cases of human campylobacteriosis acquired from exposure to contaminated chicken.
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- "It is well documented that fluoroquinolone resistance among Campylobacter isolates from human infections increased after the approval of fluoroquinolones in agriculture, especially in poultry farming (Jacobs-Reitsma, Kan, & Bolder, 1994; McDermott et al., 2002). "
ABSTRACT: In the present study Campylobacter species and their antimicrobial resistance in Latvian broiler chicken production was determined. Furthermore, this is the first report on the antimicrobial resistance patterns for Campylobacter isolates from broiler chickens at slaughterhouse and retail level in Latvia. Two biggest Latvian broiler chicken meat producing company products were included in the study. Altogether, 74 randomly selected broiler chicken Campylobacter spp. isolates were analysed for species identification. Campylobacter isolates were obtained during a 12-month period within the Latvian Campylobacter prevalence study in 2010. Colony multiplex PCR was used for all isolates to identify Campylobacter species. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for 58 Campylobacter spp. isolates. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in all 58 isolates (100%). A high proportion of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (100%) and nalidixic acid (87.9%). Multidrug resistance, which was determined as resistance to three or more unrelated antimicrobials, was detected in 39 isolates (67.2%). Moreover, all multiresistant isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid. Analyses of Campylobacter isolates from two Latvian broiler chicken meat producing companies resulted with significant differences in Campylobacter species; from the company A mainly Campylobacter coli were found, while in the company B Campylobacter jejuni.Food Control 12/2014; 46:86–90. DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.05.009 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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- "That is why poultry and poultry products pose also a hazard for potential transfer of (multi)resistant strains to human (Endberg et al., 2001). In this connection, the resistance of Campylobacter spp. to fluoroquinolones and particularly to enrofloxacin, is especially important (Hoge et al., 1998; Mc Dermot et al., 2002; Saenz et al., 2000; Van Den Bogaard and Stobberingh, 1999; Van Looveren et al., 2001). "
ABSTRACT: A total of 110 caecal samples were collected from broiler chickens originating from 6 small poultry farms in Bulgaria during the first half of 2009, and (45) Campylobacter jejuni strains were isolated. Twenty four (53.3%) of the C. jejuni isolates were determined as resistant to several antibiotics. The highest percentage of resistance was observed against (tetracycline) 22.2%, (enrofloxacin) 13.4% and (ampicillin) 11.1%. Two strains (4.4%) were resistant to erythromycin. The distribution of isolates on the basis of Minimal Inhibition Concentration revealed the highest value of 64 μg/ml to tetracycline in one of the strains. Four isolates resistant against ampicillin were with MIC of 32 μg/ml, and another one – with MIC 16 μg/ml.01/2014; 40(401):29-34. DOI:10.16988/iuvfd.17224
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- "In vitro activities of sarafloxacin against avian E. coli and other infections were studied previously (Soussy et al., 1987, Jones and Erwin, 1998, Medders et al., 1998, Wang et al., 2001 and Smith et al., 2007) and the drug proved its efficacy in comparison with other fluoroquinolones. Sarafloxacin had been proposed successfully for the use in the drinking water of chickens to treat bacterial infections caused by E. coli (McCabe et al., 1993, Charleston et al., 1998, Medders et al., 1998, Hofacre et al., 2000 and Chansiripornchai and Sasipreeyajan, 2002), Salmonella spp (Jiang et al., 2000 and Roy et al., 2002) and Campylobacter jejuni (McDermott et al., 2002) and to prevent spiking mortality in turkeys (Vukina et al., 1998). "
ABSTRACT: This work was conducted to detect the effect of using sarafloxacin (5 mg/kg body weight) in the drinking water of broiler chickens to control experimental colisepticaemia in broiler chickens. One hundred and seventy, day old broiler chicks were used in the study. Twenty chicks at the day of arrival were sacrificed and cultured to ensure absence of E. coli infection. One hundred and fifty chicks were divided into three equal groups, each consists of 50 birds. Group (1) was challenged with E. coli and not treated with sarafloxacin (control positive), group (2) was challenged with E. coli and treated with sarafloxacin, while group (3) was neither challenged with E. coli nor sarafloxacin treated (blank control). Challenge was done intramuscularly (I/M) at 2 weeks of age in groups (1 and 2) as each bird received 0.5 ml of the nutrient broth culture containing 10 8 colony forming unit (CFU) E. coli O78 / ml. One appearance of signs, sarafloxacin was added to the drinking water for 3 successive days. All the birds were kept under complete observation for 6 weeks for estimating the bird's performance (body weight and feed conversion rate) and recording signs, mortalities, gross lesions, re-isolation of the organism and microscopical examination of the organs. The obtained results indicated significant (P<0.05) improvement in chickens performance in chickens challenged with E. coli and treated with sarafloxacin than those challenged and not treated. On the other hand, significant (P<0.05) decrease in morbidity and mortality rates, gross organs lesion score and re-isolation of E. coli O78 from the internal organs of chickens treated with sarafloxacin when compared with E. coli challenged non treated birds. Also, improvement of the microcscopical lesion scores was also detected in sarafloxacin treated group. It could be concluded from the above results that sarafloxacin used in a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight in the drinking water for 3 consecutive days is very effective in controlling of colisepticaemia in broiler chickens. 1. Introduction Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a normal inhabitant chicken's microflora. Some avian E. coli serotypes are pathogenic and induce significant economic problems in broiler chickens (Goodwin et al., 1993, Yogaratnam, 1995, Jakob et al., 1998, Dho-Moulin and Fairbrother, 1999 and Russell, 2003). Serogroups O78, O2 and O8 are common serotypes usually associated with colisepticaemia in poultry (Wray and Carroll, 1993). Colisepticaemia is the primary cause of death associated with an early respiratory disease complex (RDC) characterized by depression, respiratory distress and increased mortality in broiler chickens (Tablante et al., 1999 and Barnes et al., 2008). Typical lesions among birds with field and experimentally induced colisepticemia are airsacculitis, pericarditis and perihepatitis (Wray et al., 1996). The response of coliform infections to various medications is erratic and often difficult to evaluate. Significant increase in appearance of drug resistant strains of E. coli isolated from poultry has complicated the problem (Scioli et al., 1983, Alimehr et al., 1999 and Geornaras et al., 2001). Laboratory tests to determine the sensitivity of E. coli to the various drugs are useful to select the most beneficial drugs (Vandemaele et al., 2002).Life Science Journal 01/2011; 8(3):318-328. · 0.17 Impact Factor