Prugnolle F, De Meeus T. Inferring sex-biased dispersal from population genetic tools: a review. Heredity 88: 161-165

Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme des Micro-organismes, UMR 9926 CNRS-IRD, Institut de Recherche et Développement, 911 av. Agropolis BP 5045, 34032 Montpellier cedex 1, France.
Heredity (Impact Factor: 3.81). 04/2002; 88(3):161-5. DOI: 10.1038/sj.hdy.6800060
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sex-biased dispersal, where individuals of one sex stay or return to their natal site (or group) to breed while individuals of the other sex are prone to disperse, is a wide-spread pattern in vertebrate organisms. In general, mammals exhibit male-biased dispersal whereas birds exhibit female-bias. Dispersal estimates are often difficult to obtain from direct field observations. Here we describe different methods for inferring sex-specific dispersal using population genetic tools and discuss the problems they can raise. We distinguish two types of methods: those based on bi-parental markers (eg comparison of male/female relatedness, F(st) and assignment probabilities) and those relying on the comparison between markers with different modes of inheritance (eg mtDNA markers and microsatellites). Finally, we discuss statistical problems that are encountered with these different methods (eg pseudoreplication, problems due to the comparison of distinct markers). While the genetic methods to detect sex-biased dispersal are now relatively well developed, their interpretation can prove problematic due to the confounding effects of factors such as the mating system of the species. Moreover, the relative power of these methods is not well known and requires further investigation.

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Available from: Thierry De Meeûs, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "For mammals, inbreeding avoidance may represent the most important adaptive advantage of sex-biased dispersal (Pusey and Wolf 1996; Biek et al. 2006). Most solitary mammals exhibit differential dispersal patterns for both sexes, where females are philopatric and males disperse from their natal area and establish permanent residence in a new home range to reproduce (Waser and Jones 1983; Prugnolle and de Meeus 2002; Ratnayeke et al. 2002; Moyer et al. 2006). Sex-biased dispersal is often hypothesized to be a means of avoiding inbreeding (Wolff 1993; Costello et al. 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Landscape fragmentation is often a major cause of species extinction as it can affect a wide variety of ecological processes. The impact of fragmentation varies among species depending on many factors, including their life-history traits and dispersal abilities. Felids are one of the groups most threatened by fragmented landscapes because of their large home ranges, territorial behavior, and low population densities. Here, we model the impacts of habitat fragmentation on patterns of genetic diversity in the guigna (Leopardus guigna), a small felid that is closely associated with the heavily human-impacted temperate rainforests of southern South America. We assessed genetic variation in 1798 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA sequences, 15 microsatellite loci, and 2 sex chromosome genes and estimated genetic diversity, kinship, inbreeding, and dispersal in 38 individuals from landscapes with differing degrees of fragmentation on Chiloé Island in southern Chile. Increased fragmentation was associated with reduced genetic diversity, but not with increased kinship or inbreeding. However, in fragmented landscapes, there was a weaker negative correlation between pairwise kinship and geographic distance, suggesting increased dispersal distances. These results highlight the importance of biological corridors to maximize connectivity in fragmented landscapes and contribute to our understanding of the broader genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation, especially for forest-specialist carnivores. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
    Journal of Heredity 08/2015; 2015:522-536. DOI:10.1093/jhered/esv025 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    • "However, this structuring of mtDNA may only be the result of red deer female philopatry (Skog et al. 2009) and potentially reveals little about wider genetic structuring. The dispersion of red deer males is higher (Albon and Langvatn 1992) and in species with male-biased dispersal, postglacial recolonization patterns typically differ when nuclear DNA markers are included (Waits et al. 2000; Prugnolle and de Meeűs 2002). Microsatellites are popular markers for the study of geographical structure and gene flow because of their high levels of polymorphism and biparental inheritance in a Mendelian fashion (Jarne and Lagoda 1996). "
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    ABSTRACT: Due to a restriction of the distributional range of European red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) during the Quaternary and subsequent recolonization of Europe from different refugia, a clear phylogeographical pattern in genetic structure has been revealed using mitochondrial DNA markers. In Central Europe, 2 distinct, eastern and western, lineages of European red deer are present; however, admixture between them has not yet been studied in detail. We used mitochondrial DNA (control region and cytochrome b gene) sequences and 22 microsatellite loci from 522 individuals to investigate the genetic diversity of red deer in what might be expected to be an intermediate zone. We discovered a high number of unique mtDNA haplotypes belonging to each lineage and high levels of genetic diversity (cyt b H = 0.867, D-loop H = 0.914). The same structuring of red deer populations was also revealed by microsatellite analysis, with results from both analyses thus suggesting a suture zone between the 2 lineages. Despite the fact that postglacial recolonization of Central Europe by red deer occurred more than 10000 years ago, the degree of admixture between the 2 lineages is relatively small, with only 10.8% admixed individuals detected. Direct translocations of animals by humans have slightly blurred the pattern in this region; however, this blurring was more apparent when using maternally inherited markers than nuclear markers. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
    The Journal of heredity 04/2015; 106(4). DOI:10.1093/jhered/esv018 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    • "Secondly, the sampling of mothers with their offspring complicates the examination of male dispersal via mtDNA variation, because pre-dispersal males, carrying the mtDNA variant of their resident mother, would weaken the predicted effect of higher male mtDNA variation. Hence, the inclusion of pre-dispersal individuals introduces a considerable amount of noise that may silence differences that are expected between males and females if sex-bias in dispersal exists [Prugnolle & de Meeus, 2002]. Accordingly, sex differences may actually be stronger than they are reported here. "
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    ABSTRACT: Sex differences in philopatry and dispersal have important consequences on the genetic structure of populations, social groups, and social relationships within groups. Among mammals, male dispersal and female philopatry are most common and closely related taxa typically exhibit similar dispersal patterns. However, among four well-studied species of baboons, only hamadryas baboons exhibit female dispersal, thus differing from their congenerics, which show female philopatry and close-knit female social relationships. Until recently, knowledge of the Guinea baboon social system and dispersal pattern remained sparse. Previous observations suggested that the high degree of tolerance observed among male Guinea baboons could be due to kinship. This led us to hypothesize that this species exhibits male philopatry and female dispersal, conforming to the hamadryas pattern. We genotyped 165 individuals from five localities in the Niokolo-Koba National Park, Senegal, at 14 autosomal microsatellite loci and sequenced a fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVRI) of 55 individuals. We found evidence for higher population structuring in males than in females, as expected if males are the more philopatric sex. A comparison of relatedness between male-male and female-female dyads within and among communities did not yield conclusive results. HVRI diversity within communities was high and did not differ between the sexes, also suggesting female gene flow. Our study is the first comprehensive analysis of the genetic population structure in Guinea baboons and provides evidence for female-biased dispersal in this species. In conjunction with their multilevel social organization, this finding parallels the observations for human hunter-gatherers and strengthens baboons as an intriguing model to elucidate the processes that shaped the highly cooperative societies of Homo. Am. J. Primatol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Primatology 04/2015; 77(8). DOI:10.1002/ajp.22415 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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