Cdk5/p35 regulates neurotransmitter release through phosphorylation and downregulation of P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channel activity.
ABSTRACT Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase with close structural homology to the mitotic Cdks. The complex of Cdk5 and p35, the neuron-specific regulatory subunit of Cdk5, plays important roles in brain development, such as neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth. Moreover, Cdk5 is thought to be involved in the promotion of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Cdk5 is abundant in mature neurons; however, its physiological functions in the adult brain are unknown. Here we show that Cdk5/p35 regulates neurotransmitter release in the presynaptic terminal. Both Cdk5 and p35 were abundant in the synaptosomes. Roscovitine, a specific inhibitor of Cdk5 in neurons, induced neurotransmitter release from the synaptosomes in response to membrane depolarization and enhanced the EPSP slopes in rat hippocampal slices. The electrophysiological study using each specific inhibitor of the voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) and calcium imaging revealed that roscovitine enhanced Ca2+ influx from the P/Q-type VDCC. Moreover, Cdk5/p25 phosphorylated the intracellular loop connecting domains II and III (L(II-III)) between amino acid residues 724 and 981 of isoforms cloned from rat brain of the alpha1A subunit of P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. The phosphorylation inhibited the interaction of L(II-III) with SNAP-25 and synaptotagmin I, which were plasma membrane soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptor (SNARE) proteins and were required for efficient neurotransmitter release. These results strongly suggest that Cdk5/p35 inhibits neurotransmitter release through the phosphorylation of P/Q-type VDCC and downregulation of the channel activity.
Article: Involvement of calpain/p35-p25/Cdk5/NMDAR signaling pathway in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat retinal neurons.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We investigated possible involvement of a calpain/p35-p25/cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) signaling pathway in modifying NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in glutamate-induced injury of cultured rat retinal neurons. Glutamate treatment decreased cell viability and induced cell apoptosis, which was accompanied by an increase in Cdk5 and p-Cdk5(T15) protein levels. The Cdk5 inhibitor roscovitine rescued the cell viability and inhibited the cell apoptosis. In addition, the protein levels of both calpain 2 and calpain-specific alpha-spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs), which are both Ca(2+)-dependent, were elevated in glutamate-induced cell injury. The protein levels of Cdk5, p-Cdk5(T15), calpain 2 and SBDPs tended to decline with glutamate treatments of more than 9 h. Furthermore, the elevation of SBDPs was attenuated by either D-APV, a NMDAR antagonist, or CNQX, a non-NMDAR antagonist, but was hardly changed by the inhibitors of intracellular calcium stores dantrolene and xestospongin. Moreover, the Cdk5 co-activator p35 was significantly up-regulated, whereas its cleaved product p25 expression showed a transient increase. Glutamate treatment for less than 9 h also considerably enhanced the ratio of the Cdk5-phosphorylated NMDAR subunit NR2A at Ser1232 site (p-NR2A(S1232)) and NR2A (p-NR2A(S1232)/NR2A), and caused a translocation of p-NR2A(S1232) from the cytosol to the plasma membrane. The enhanced p-NR2A(S1232) was inhibited by roscovitine, but augmented by over-expression of Cdk5. Calcium imaging experiments further showed that intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) of retinal cells were steadily increased following glutamate treatments of 2 h, 6 h and 9 h. All these results suggest that the activation of the calpain/p35-p25/Cdk5 signaling pathway may contribute to glutamate neurotoxicity in the retina by up-regulating p-NR2A(S1232) expression.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e42318. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase 1 (AATYK1), a novel serine/threonine kinase that is highly expressed in the brain, is involved in neurite extension and apoptosis of cerebellar granule neurons; however, its precise function remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the interaction of AATYK1A with Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5)/p35, a proline-directed protein kinase that is predominantly expressed in neurons. AATYK1A bound to the p35 activation subunit of Cdk5 in cultured cells and in mouse brains and colocalized with p35 on endosomes in COS-7 cells. AATYK1A was phosphorylated at Ser34 by Cdk5/p35 in vitro, in cultured neurons and in mouse brain. In PC12D cells, Ser34 phosphorylation increased after treatment with nerve growth factor and phosphorylated AATYK1A accumulated in growth cones of PC12D cells. Ser34 phosphorylation suppressed the tyrosine phosphorylation of AATYK1A by Src family kinases. These results suggest a possibility that AATYK1A plays a role in early to recycling endosomes and its function is regulated by phosphorylation with Cdk5 or Src-family kinases.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(4):e10260. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Familial hemiplegic migraine Ca(v)2.1 channel mutation R192Q enhances ATP-gated P2X3 receptor activity of mouse sensory ganglion neurons mediating trigeminal pain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The R192Q mutation of the CACNA1A gene, encoding for the α1 subunit of voltage-gated P/Q Ca2+ channels (Ca(v)2.1), is associated with familial hemiplegic migraine-1. We investigated whether this gain-of-function mutation changed the structure and function of trigeminal neuron P2X3 receptors that are thought to be important contributors to migraine pain. Using in vitro trigeminal sensory neurons of a mouse genetic model knockin for the CACNA1A R192Q mutation, we performed patch clamp recording and intracellular Ca2+ imaging that showed how these knockin ganglion neurons generated P2X3 receptor-mediated responses significantly larger than wt neurons. These enhanced effects were reversed by the Ca(v)2.1 blocker ω-agatoxin. We, thus, explored intracellular signalling dependent on kinases and phosphatases to understand the molecular regulation of P2X3 receptors of knockin neurons. In such cells we observed strong activation of CaMKII reversed by ω-agatoxin treatment. The CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 blocked CaMKII phosphorylation and the hyperesponsive P2X3 phenotype. Although no significant difference in membrane expression of knockin receptors was found, serine phosphorylation of knockin P2X3 receptors was constitutively decreased and restored by KN-93. No change in threonine or tyrosine phosphorylation was detected. Finally, pharmacological inhibitors of the phosphatase calcineurin normalized the enhanced P2X3 receptor responses of knockin neurons and increased their serine phosphorylation. The present results suggest that the CACNA1A mutation conferred a novel molecular phenotype to P2X3 receptors of trigeminal ganglion neurons via CaMKII-dependent activation of calcineurin that selectively impaired the serine phosphorylation state of such receptors, thus potentiating their effects in transducing trigeminal nociception.Molecular Pain 01/2010; 6:48. · 3.53 Impact Factor