The central domain of Escherichia coli TyrR is responsible for hexamerization associated with tyrosine-mediated repression of gene expression.
ABSTRACT TyrR from Escherichia coli regulates the expression of genes for aromatic amino acid uptake and biosynthesis. Its central ATP-hydrolyzing domain is similar to conserved domains of bacterial regulatory proteins that interact with RNA polymerase holoenzyme associated with the alternative sigma factor, sigma(54). It is also related to the common module of the AAA+ superfamily of proteins that is involved in a wide range of cellular activities. We expressed and purified two TyrR central domain polypeptides. The fragment comprising residues 188-467, called TyrR-(188-467), was soluble and stable, in contrast to that corresponding to the conserved core from residues 193 to 433. TyrR-(188-467) bound ATP and rhodamine-ATP with association constants 2- to 5-fold lower than TyrR and hydrolyzed ATP at five times the rate of TyrR. In contrast to TyrR, which is predominantly dimeric at protein concentrations less than 10 microm in the absence of ligands, or in the presence of ATP or tyrosine alone, TyrR-(188-467) is a monomer, even at high protein concentrations. Tyrosine in the presence of ATP or ATPgammaS promotes the oligomerization of TyrR-(188-467) to a hexamer. Tyrosine-dependent repression of gene transcription by TyrR therefore depends on ligand binding and hexamerization determinants located in the central domain polypeptide TyrR-(188-467).
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ABSTRACT: The transcriptional regulator TyrR is known to undergo a dimer-to-hexamer conformational change in response to aromatic amino acids, through which it controls gene expression. In this study, we identified N316D as the second-site suppressor of Escherichia coli TyrR(E274Q), a mutant protein deficient in hexamer formation. N316 variants exhibited altered in vivo regulatory properties, and the most drastic changes were observed for TyrR(N316D) and TyrR(N316R) mutants. Gel filtration analyses revealed that the ligand-mediated oligomer formation was enhanced and diminished for TyrR(N316D) and TyrR(N316R), respectively, compared with the wild-type TyrR. ADP was substituted for ATP in the oligomer formation of TyrR(N316D).Journal of bacteriology 11/2008; 190(24):8238-43. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Enterobacter cloacae UW5 synthesizes the plant growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) via the indole-3-pyruvate pathway utilizing the enzyme indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase that is encoded by ipdC. In this bacterium, ipdC expression and IAA production occur in stationary phase and are induced by an exogenous source of tryptophan, conditions that are present in the rhizosphere. The aim of this study was to identify the regulatory protein that controls the expression of ipdC. We identified a sequence in the promoter region of ipdC that is highly similar to the recognition sequence for the Escherichia coli regulatory protein TyrR that regulates genes involved in aromatic amino acid transport and metabolism. Using a tyrR insertional mutant, we demonstrate that TyrR is required for IAA production and for induction of ipdC transcription. TyrR directly induces ipdC expression, as was determined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, by ipdC promoter-driven reporter gene activity, and by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Expression increases in response to tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. This suggests that, in addition to its function in plant growth promotion, indolepyruvate decarboxylase may be important for aromatic amino acid uptake and/or metabolism.Journal of bacteriology 09/2008; 190(21):7200-8. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) modulates the transition between planktonic and biofilm life styles. In response to c-di-GMP, the enhancer binding protein FleQ from Pseudomonas aeruginosa derepresses the expression of Pel exopolysaccharide genes required for biofilm formation when a second protein, FleN is present. A model is that binding of c-di-GMP to FleQ induces its dissociation from the pelA promoter allowing RNA polymerase to access this site. To test this, we analyzed pelA DNA footprinting patterns with various combinations of FleQ, FleN and c-di-GMP, coupled to in vivo promoter activities. FleQ binds to two sites called box 1 and 2. FleN binds to FleQ bound at these sites causing the intervening DNA to bend. Binding of c-di-GMP to FleQ relieves the DNA distortion but FleQ remains bound to the two sites. Analysis of wild type and mutated versions of pelA-lacZ transcriptional fusions suggests that FleQ represses gene expression from box 2 and activates gene expression in response to c-di-GMP from box 1. The role of c-di-GMP is thus to convert FleQ from a repressor to an activator. The mechanism of action of FleQ is distinct from that of other bacterial transcription factors that both activate and repress gene expression from a single promoter.Nucleic Acids Research 05/2012; 40(15):7207-18. · 8.28 Impact Factor