Severe impairment of interleukin-1 and Toll-like receptor signalling in mice lacking IRAK-4.
ABSTRACT Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and members of the pro-inflammatory interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) family, share homologies in their cytoplasmic domains called Toll/IL-1R/plant R gene homology (TIR) domains. Intracellular signalling mechanisms mediated by TIRs are similar, with MyD88 (refs 5-8) and TRAF6 (refs 9, 10) having critical roles. Signal transduction between MyD88 and TRAF6 is known to involve the serine-threonine kinase IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1) and two homologous proteins, IRAK-2 (ref. 12) and IRAK-M. However, the physiological functions of the IRAK molecules remain unclear, and gene-targeting studies have shown that IRAK-1 is only partially required for IL-1R and TLR signalling. Here we show by gene-targeting that IRAK-4, an IRAK molecule closely related to the Drosophila Pelle protein, is indispensable for the responses of animals and cultured cells to IL-1 and ligands that stimulate various TLRs. IRAK-4-deficient animals are completely resistant to a lethal dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, animals lacking IRAK-4 are severely impaired in their responses to viral and bacterial challenges. Our results indicate that IRAK-4 has an essential role in innate immunity.
- SourceAvailable from: Wenyue Xu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is known that macrophage scavenger receptor A (SR-A) can protect mice from endotoxemia. In addition, Escherichia coli O111:B4 LPS from Sigma (sLPS), which contains both TLR4 and TLR2 agonists, was previously reported to be able to induce SR-A expression on murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. However, the relative role of both TLR4 and TLR2 agonists from Sigma (sLPS) in the up-regulation of SR-A on RAW264.7 is still undefined. Here, we found that sLPS could only slightly up-regulate SR-A on RAW264.7 following removing its TLR4 and TLR2 agonists, respectively. In contrast, the combination of TLR4 agonist uLPS (re-extracted sLPS) and TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4 dramatically induced SR-A expression, and synergistically promoted RAW264.7 to bind and internalize FITC-LPS specifically through SR-A. The combination had no such effect either on TLR2 or TLR4 expression, and incubation with IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 or TNF-alpha alone could not induce SR-A expression on RAW264.7. In addition, treatment with a NF-kappaB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) could only weakly suppress the up-regulation of SR-A by the combination. However, the combination synergistically promoted MAPK p38 phosphorylation, and p38 specific inhibitor SB203580 completely suppressed its inducible effect on SR-A expression. Hence, we demonstrated that up-regulation of SR-A by sLPS was resulted from the cooperation of its TLR4 and TLR2 agonists through p38, and we also presented a novel synergy effect of TLR2 and TLR4 agonists.Molecular Immunology 04/2007; 44(9):2315-23. DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2006.11.013 · 3.00 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mycoplasmal membrane diacylated lipoproteins not only initiate proinflammatory responses through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR6 via the activation of the transcriptional factor NF-kappaB, but also initiate apoptotic responses. The aim of this study was to clarify the apoptotic machineries. Mycoplasma fermentans lipoproteins and a synthetic lipopeptide, MALP-2, showed cytocidal activity towards HEK293 cells transfected with a TLR2-encoding plasmid. The activity was synergically augmented by co-expression of TLR6, but not by co-expression of other TLRs. Under the condition of co-expression of TLR2 and TLR6, the lipoproteins could induce maximum NF-kappa B activation and apoptotic cell death in the cells 6 h and 24 h after stimulation respectively. Dominant-negative forms of MyD88 and FADD, but not IRAK-4, reduced the cytocidal activity of the lipoproteins. In addition, both dominant-negative forms also downregulated the activation of both NF-kappa B and caspase-8 in the cells. Additionally, the cytocidal activity was sufficiently attenuated by a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK. These findings suggest that mycoplasmal lipoproteins can trigger TLR2- and TLR6-mediated sequential bifurcate responses: NF-kappa B activation as an early event, which is partially mediated by MyD88 and FADD; and apoptosis as a later event, which is regulated by p38 MAPK as well as by MyD88 and FADD.Cellular Microbiology 03/2004; 6(2):187-99. DOI:10.1046/j.1462-5822.2003.00356.x · 4.82 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play crucial roles in the induction of innate immune responses by recognising pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The engagement of TLRs by pathogens results in induction of co-stimulatory molecules that facilitate a specific immune response and also in the induction of pro-inflammatory proteins that will promote the elimination of pathogens from the body. TLRs employ many of the same signalling components as the type I interleukin (IL)-1 receptor (IL-1R). This is hardly surprising since the intracellular regions of TLRs and the IL-1R share a conserved Toll/IL-1R homology domain (TIR) that allows the receptors to recruit the intracellular TIR-containing adaptor protein Myd88. The latter then activates IL-1R-associated kinases that in turn recruit well-characterised downstream effectors culminating in activation of MAP kinases and transcription factors such as NFkappaB and AP-1. Since glucocorticoids are known to target the latter transcription factors and the MAP kinase cascades, this commentary highlights the likely crucial importance of Toll-like receptor signalling pathways as key targets for mediating the anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of steroids.Journal of Endocrinology 12/2003; 179(2):139-44. DOI:10.1677/joe.0.1790139 · 3.59 Impact Factor