Petroleum products are highly complex chemical mixtures consisting predominantly of hydrocarbons. Their composition varies with source and intended use of the product. Virtually all are blended products that come into contact with man in a wide range of circumstances. Their toxicity for man is generally low and the use of additives rarely affects the toxicity of the final product. Because products are blended to meet performance, and not chemical specifications, their composition varies significantly. Management of toxicity benefits from simplified guidelines that consider the product by its type. Management in most cases is symptomatic, but the doctor needs to be aware of the potential for development of sequelae such as aspiration pneumonia and central nervous system (CNS) depression. Local and systemic effects of exposure to hydrocarbons are reviewed, as are immediate assessment and recommended management of acute exposure to petroleum products. Because of the large scope of this subject, this paper limits itself to acute toxicity of petroleum products encountered inthe public domain. It does not address topics such as chronic toxicity, solvent abuse, petrochemicals, or pesticides.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aspiration diseases represent an important cause of morbimortality. Among these, acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia resulting from gasoline aspiration is considered rare, especially in the case of adult patients. However, it is usual among fire eaters. We report the case of a 28-year-old male patient who accidentally inhaled gasoline when trying to transfer it from one tank to another. Fifteen days later, the patient was admitted to hospital due to haemoptysis and partial atelectasis of the middle lobe. The patient was administered antibiotics and adjunctive therapy and he recovered after 20 days. Las enfermedades por aspiración representan una causa importante de morbimortalidad. Dentro de éstas, la neumonía lipoidea exógena aguda por aspiración de gasolina se presenta como una causa rara, más aún en los pacientes adultos, en los que se han descrito casos en los comedores de fuego (Fire eaters). Presentamos el caso de un paciente varón de 28 años que aspiró accidentalmente gasolina al intentar extraerla de un depósito a otro, ingresando quince días después por expectoración hemoptoica y atelectasia parcial del lóbulo medio. El cuadro se resolvió adecuadamente en veinte días con tratamiento antibiótico y de soporte.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Household poisons can cause serious damage to the health of children. Turpentine oil, used chiefly as a solvent in paints, varnishes, and waxes; is often placed within easy reach of children during polishing or painting work. It is capable of causing serious toxicity, whether ingested or inhaled. Pulmonary aspiration can lead to lung parenchymal damage and turpentine-associated pneumonia. We report a case of exploratory ingestion and inhalation of turpentine oil in an 18-month-old boy, leading to extensive lung parenchymal damage, formation of multiple abscess cavities, and necrosis treated with decortication and segmental resection.
Pediatric emergency care 06/2006; 22(5):355-7. DOI:10.1097/01.pec.0000215371.48859.fd · 1.05 Impact Factor
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