The phosphotyrosine binding-like domain of talin activates integrins.

Division of Vascular Biology, Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.65). 07/2002; 277(24):21749-58. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111996200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cellular regulation of the ligand binding affinity of integrin adhesion receptors (integrin activation) depends on the integrin beta cytoplasmic domains (tails). The head domain of talin binds to several integrin beta tails and activates integrins. This head domain contains a predicted FERM domain composed of three subdomains (F1, F2, and F3). An integrin-activating talin fragment was predicted to contain the F2 and F3 subdomains. Both isolated subdomains bound specifically to the integrin beta3 tail. However, talin F3 bound the beta3 tail with a 4-fold higher affinity than talin F2. Furthermore, expression of talin F3 (but not F2) in cells led to activation of integrin alpha(IIb)beta3. A molecular model of talin F3 indicated that it resembles a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. PTB domains recognize peptide ligands containing beta turns, often formed by NPXY motifs. NPX(Y/F) motifs are highly conserved in integrin beta tails, and mutations that disrupt this motif interfere with both integrin activation and talin binding. Thus, integrin binding to talin resembles the interactions of PTB domains with peptide ligands. These resemblances suggest that the activation of integrins requires the presence of a beta turn at NPX(Y/F) motifs conserved in integrin beta cytoplasmic domains.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Numerous proteins have been identified as constituents of the adhesome, the totality of molecular components in the supramolecular assemblies known as focal adhesions, fibrillar adhesions and other kinds of adhesive contact. The transmembrane receptor proteins called integrins are pivotal adhesome members, providing a physical link between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the actin cytoskeleton. Tensins are ever more widely investigated intracellular adhesome constituents. Involved in cell attachment and migration, cytoskeleton reorganization, signal transduction and other processes relevant to cancer research, tensins have recently been linked to functional properties of deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) and a mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), to cell migration in breast cancer, and to metastasis suppression in the kidney. Tensins are close relatives of phosphatase homolog/tensin homolog (PTEN), an extensively studied tumor suppressor. Such findings are recasting the earlier vision of tensin (TNS) as an actin-filament (F-actin) capping protein in a different light. This critical review aims to summarize current knowledge on tensins and thus to highlight key points concerning the expression, structure, function and evolution of the various members of the TNS brotherhood. Insight is sought by comparisons with homologous proteins. Some historical points are added for perspective. © Proteins 2014;. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 03/2014; · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Significance: During wound healing of the skin, keratinocytes should move over while still adhering to their underlying matrix. Thus, mechanistic insights into the wound-healing process require an understanding of the forms and functions of keratinocyte matrix adhesions, specifically focal contacts and hemidesmosomes, and their components. Recent Advances: Although the structure and composition of focal contacts and hemidesmosomes are relatively well defined, the functions of their components are only now being delineated using mouse genetic models and knockdown approaches in cell culture systems. Remarkably, both focal contact and hemidesmosomal proteins appear involved in determining the speed and directional migration of epidermal cells by modulating several signal transduction pathways. Critical Issues: Although many publications are centered on focal contacts, their existence in tissues such as the skin is controversial. Nonetheless, focal contact proteins are central to mechanisms that regulate skin cell motility. Conversely, hemidesmosomes have been identified in intact skin but whether hemidesmosomal components play a positive regulatory function in keratinocyte motility remains debated in the field. Future Directions: Defective wound healing is a developing problem in the aged, hospitalized and diabetic populations. Hence, deriving new insights into the molecular roles of matrix adhesion proteins in wound healing is a prerequisite to the development of novel therapeutics to enhance tissue repair and regeneration.
    Advances in wound care. 03/2014; 3(3):247-263.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tight regulation of integrin affinity is critical for hemostasis. A final step of integrin activation is talin binding to two sites within the integrin β cytoplasmic domain. Binding of talin to a membrane-distal NPxY sequence facilitates a second, weaker interaction of talin with an integrin membrane-proximal region (MPR) that is critical for integrin activation. To test the functional significance of these distinct interactions on platelet function in vivo, we generated knock-in mice expressing talin1 mutants with impaired capacity to interact with the β3 integrin MPR (L325R) or NPLY sequence (W359A). Both talin1(L325R) and talin1(W359A) mice were protected from experimental thrombosis. Talin1(L325R) mice, but not talin(W359A) mice, exhibited a severe bleeding phenotype. Activation of αIIbβ3 was completely blocked in talin1(L325R) platelets whereas activation was reduced by approximately 50% in talin1(W359A) platelets. Quantitative biochemical measurements detected talin1(W359A) binding to β3 integrin, albeit with 2.9-fold lower affinity than wild type talin1. The rate of αIIbβ3 activation was slower in Talin1(W359A) platelets which consequently delayed aggregation under static conditions and reduced thrombus formation under physiological flow conditions. Together our data indicates that reduction of talin-β3 integrin binding affinity results in decelerated αIIbβ3 integrin activation and protection from arterial thrombosis without pathological bleeding.
    Blood 02/2014; · 9.78 Impact Factor