The phosphotyrosine binding-like domain of talin activates Integrins
ABSTRACT Cellular regulation of the ligand binding affinity of integrin adhesion receptors (integrin activation) depends on the integrin beta cytoplasmic domains (tails). The head domain of talin binds to several integrin beta tails and activates integrins. This head domain contains a predicted FERM domain composed of three subdomains (F1, F2, and F3). An integrin-activating talin fragment was predicted to contain the F2 and F3 subdomains. Both isolated subdomains bound specifically to the integrin beta3 tail. However, talin F3 bound the beta3 tail with a 4-fold higher affinity than talin F2. Furthermore, expression of talin F3 (but not F2) in cells led to activation of integrin alpha(IIb)beta3. A molecular model of talin F3 indicated that it resembles a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain. PTB domains recognize peptide ligands containing beta turns, often formed by NPXY motifs. NPX(Y/F) motifs are highly conserved in integrin beta tails, and mutations that disrupt this motif interfere with both integrin activation and talin binding. Thus, integrin binding to talin resembles the interactions of PTB domains with peptide ligands. These resemblances suggest that the activation of integrins requires the presence of a beta turn at NPX(Y/F) motifs conserved in integrin beta cytoplasmic domains.
Human Molecular Genetics 01/2003; 12(8):925-935. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddg097 · 6.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Focal adhesions lie at the convergence of integrin adhesion, signaling and the actin cytoskeleton. Cells modify focal adhesions in response to changes in the molecular composition, two-dimensional (2D) vs. three-dimensional (3D) structure, and physical forces present in their extracellular matrix environment. We consider here how cells use focal adhesions to regulate signaling complexes and integrin function. Furthermore, we examine how this regulation controls complex cellular behaviors in response to matrices of diverse physical and biochemical properties. One event regulated by the physical structure of the ECM is phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at Y397, which couples FAK to several signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 05/2004; DOI:10.1016/S0167-4889(04)00099-0 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Experimental challenges associated with characterization of the membrane-bound form of talin have prevented us from understanding the molecular mechanism of its membrane-dependent integrin activation. Here, utilizing what we believe to be a novel membrane mimetic model, we present a reproducible model of membrane-bound talin observed across multiple independent simulations. We characterize both local and global membrane-induced structural transitions that successfully reconcile discrepancies between biochemical and structural studies and provide insight into how talin might modulate integrin function. Membrane binding of talin, captured in unbiased simulations, proceeds through three distinct steps: initial electrostatic recruitment of the F2 subdomain to anionic lipids via several basic residues; insertion of an initially buried, conserved hydrophobic anchor into the membrane; and association of the F3 subdomain with the membrane surface through a large, interdomain conformational change. These latter two steps, to our knowledge, have not been observed or described previously. Electrostatic analysis shows talin F2F3 to be highly polarized, with a highly positive underside, which we attribute to the initial electrostatic recruitment, and a negative top face, which can help orient the protein optimally with respect to the membrane, thereby reducing the number of unproductive membrane collision events.Biophysical Journal 11/2014; 107(9):2059-69. DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2014.09.022 · 3.83 Impact Factor