Deregulated expression of the PCPH proto-oncogene in rat mammary tumors induced with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene.
ABSTRACT The PCPH proto-oncogene was identified by its frequent activation in Syrian hamster fetal cells exposed to 3-methylcholanthrene. We previously isolated human PCPH cDNA and studied its expression in normal human tissues. We report herein the pattern of PCPH expression in normal rat tissues. Each tissue expressed one major PCPH polypeptide that varied in molecular mass in different tissues. Normal mammary gland expressed a single PCPH polypeptide of 27 kDa. This PCPH form also was expressed in lactating mammary glands but at significantly greater levels. These results suggest the existence of tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms for PCPH expression that may be influenced by the differentiation stage. Our previous studies on the involvement of PCPH in human cancer showed that human breast tumor cell lines have frequent alterations in PCPH, including multiple PCPH polypeptide forms that are not expressed in normal cells. These cell lines also have frequent loss of a 27-kDa form identified as the only PCPH polypeptide expressed by normal human breast epithelial cells. In this study, we found that these same alterations occurred in vivo during mammary carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, in both benign and malignant tumors, indicating that stable changes in PCPH expression took place early in the neoplastic process. Results showed that this experimental system is relevant to human breast carcinogenesis and provides an excellent model to study the molecular basis of the regulation of PCPH expression during normal differentiation and pathologic stages of neoplasia of the mammary gland and to analyze the role of PCPH in the carcinogenic process. Furthermore, the detection of atypical PCPH polypeptides in tumors suggests that PCPH immunodetection may be applied as a diagnostic tool for the early identification of neoplastic breast epithelial cells.
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ABSTRACT: A soluble ATP-diphosphohydrolase (apyrase, EC 126.96.36.199) has been purified from potato tubers. Solanum tuberosum, to a specific activity of 10,000 mumol P(i)/mg/min. The cDNA corresponding to the potato apyrase has been isolated and termed RROP1. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence, two hydrophobic regions at the carboxy terminus, two potential Asn-linked glycosylation sites, and four regions in the amino-terminal half that we term ACR (apyrase conserved regions) 1-4 that are highly conserved in known apyrases and related enzymes; garden pea nucleoside triphosphatase, Toxoplasma gondii nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae golgi guanosine diphosphatase. A yeast 71.9-kDa hypothetical protein on chromosome V, a Caenorhabditis elegans hypothetical 61.3-kDa protein on chromosome III, and human CD39, a lymphoid cell activation antigen, also share the conserved ACR regions, but their ability to hydrolyze nucleotides has not been assessed.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/1996; 218(3):916-23. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Treatment of Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts with a single dose of 3-methylcholanthrene caused the activation of the transforming potential of cellular sequences (Notario et al, Oncogene 5: 1425-1430, 1990), which were subsequently isolated by cosmid rescue techniques, and further identified as a novel oncogene, termed cph because of its involvement in the carcinogenic progression of hamster embryo cells (Velasco et al, Oncogene 9: 2065-2069, 1994). We have analysed the expression of the cph proto-oncogene in adult Syrian hamster tissues by northern hybridization using cph-specific genomic probes. The three cph transcripts expressed in normal and neoplastic Syrian hamster embryo cells in culture (5.0, 3.5 and 2.0 kb) were also present in most adult tissues, although different mRNA species, most likely resulting from alternative splicing events, were expressed in testes. The highest steady-state level of cph mRNA was found in kidney, whereas cph expression was nearly undetectable in skin and skeletal muscle. Southern blot analyses of DNAs from other eucaryotic organisms were performed under moderate stringency conditions with a Syrian hamster-specific cph probe. Discrete cph-hybridizing sequences were present in genomes from yeast to mammalian species, including humans, thus demonstrating that cph is a highly conserved gene in eucaryotic evolution. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we have determined also the chromosomal localization of the cph proto-oncogene in the hamster genome. FISH experiments demonstrated that cph is a single copy gene, localized on the euchromatic short arm of the X chromosome, at region Xpa7. Because chromosome X is frequently involved in structural alterations in neoplastic Syrian hamster cells transformed by chemical carcinogens and oncogenic viruses, the localization of the cph locus on this chromosome supports the notion that the cph oncogene plays a role in the malignant conversion of chemically transformed hamster fibroblasts. The wide range of tissue-specific expression and species-specific distribution of cph strongly suggest that the normal function of the cph protein product(s) may be essential for metabolic processes involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and survival.Oncogene 07/1996; 12(12):2713-7. · 7.36 Impact Factor
- The International journal of biological markers 2(2):109-19. · 1.59 Impact Factor