The Wright-Giemsa stain - Secrets revealed
ABSTRACT The colorful story of the development of the Wright-Giemsa stain is retold. Dramas are replayed, secrets are exposed, and laurels are properly returned to scientists long forgotten. The delicately balanced chemical composition of the stain, once enigmatic, is defined. Finally, an attempt is made to unshroud some of the mystery surrounding the staining method; tried-and-true procedures and useful snippets of laboratory lore are provided. Scientific explanations and reliable methods aside, however, the stain continues to possess a certain mystique, seemingly consisting of equal parts technical expertise, art, and magic.
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- "A wild-caught caiman lizard (Dracaena guianesis, a member of the family Teiidae) imported to the United States from Peru (Jacobson et al., 2001) was examined as part of a routine quarantine protocol in a zoological collection, and blood was drawn for evaluation. Blood smears were stained using Wright-Giemsa staining (Woronzoff-Dashkoff, 2002). Whole blood was fixed in buffered gluteraldehyde and processed routinely for thinsection transmission electron microscopy. "
ABSTRACT: Rhabdoviruses infect a variety of hosts, including non-avian reptiles. Consensus PCR techniques were used to obtain partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene sequence from five rhabdoviruses of South American lizards; Marco, Chaco, Timbo, Sena Madureira, and a rhabdovirus from a caiman lizard (Dracaena guianensis). The caiman lizard rhabdovirus formed inclusions in erythrocytes, which may be a route for infecting hematophagous insects. This is the first information on behavior of a rhabdovirus in squamates. We also obtained sequence from two rhabdoviruses of Australian lizards, confirming previous Charleville virus sequence and finding that, unlike a previous sequence report but in agreement with serologic reports, Almpiwar virus is clearly distinct from Charleville virus. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis revealed that most known rhabdoviruses of squamates cluster in the Almpiwar subgroup. The exception is Marco virus, which is found in the Hart Park group.Veterinary Microbiology 02/2012; 158(3-4):274-9. DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.02.020 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transplantation of human islets has been successful clinically. Since human islets are scarce, we are studying microencapsulated porcine islet xenografts in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. We have evaluated the cellular immune response in NOD mice with and without dual costimulatory blockade. Alginate-poly-L-lysine-encapsulated adult porcine islets were transplanted i.p. in untreated diabetic NODs and NODs treated with CTLA4-Ig to block CD28/B7 and with anti-CD154 mAb to inhibit CD40/CD40-ligand interactions. Groups of mice were sacrificed on subsequent days; microcapsules were evaluated by histology; peritoneal cells were analyzed by FACS; and peritoneal cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Controls included immunoincompetent NOD-Scids and diabetic NODs given sham surgery or empty microcapsules. Within 20 days, encapsulated porcine islets induced accumulation of large numbers of macrophages, eosinophils, and significant numbers of CD4 and CD8 T cells at the graft site, and all grafts were rejected. During rejection, IFNgamma, IL-12 and IL-5 were significantly elevated over sham-operated controls, whereas IL-2, TNFalpha, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1beta and TGFbeta were unchanged. Treatment with CTLA4-Ig and anti-CD154 prevented graft destruction in all animals during the 26 days of the experiment, dramatically inhibited recruitment of host inflammatory cells, and inhibited peritoneal IFNgamma and IL-5 concentrations while delaying IL-12 production. When two different pathways of T cell costimulation were blocked, T cell-dependent inflammatory responses were inhibited, and survival of encapsulated islet xenografts was significantly prolonged. These findings suggest synergy between encapsulation of donor islets and simultaneous blockade of two host costimulatory pathways in prolonging xenoislet transplant survival.Transplantation 03/2005; 79(4):409-18. DOI:10.1097/01.TP.0000150021.06027.DC · 3.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cytology is a fundamental part of marine mammal veterinary medicine that is involved in preventive medicine programs in captive animals and in the health assessment of wild populations. Marine mammals often exhibit few clinical signs of disease; thus, the cost-effective and widely accessible nature of cytologic sampling renders it one of the most important diagnostic procedures with these species. Many of these mammals are endangered, protected, and located in developing nations in which resources may be scarce. This article can be used as a field guide to advise a veterinarian, biologist, or technician working with cetaceans or sirenians. A simplistic cost-effective staining technique is used, which is ideal for situations in which funds, facilities, or time may be a limiting factor in clinical practice.Veterinary Clinics of North America Exotic Animal Practice 02/2007; 10(1):79-130, vi. DOI:10.1016/j.cvex.2006.11.001