The wright-giemsa stain. Secrets revealed.
ABSTRACT The colorful story of the development of the Wright-Giemsa stain is retold. Dramas are replayed, secrets are exposed, and laurels are properly returned to scientists long forgotten. The delicately balanced chemical composition of the stain, once enigmatic, is defined. Finally, an attempt is made to unshroud some of the mystery surrounding the staining method; tried-and-true procedures and useful snippets of laboratory lore are provided. Scientific explanations and reliable methods aside, however, the stain continues to possess a certain mystique, seemingly consisting of equal parts technical expertise, art, and magic.
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ABSTRACT: Rhabdoviruses infect a variety of hosts, including non-avian reptiles. Consensus PCR techniques were used to obtain partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene sequence from five rhabdoviruses of South American lizards; Marco, Chaco, Timbo, Sena Madureira, and a rhabdovirus from a caiman lizard (Dracaena guianensis). The caiman lizard rhabdovirus formed inclusions in erythrocytes, which may be a route for infecting hematophagous insects. This is the first information on behavior of a rhabdovirus in squamates. We also obtained sequence from two rhabdoviruses of Australian lizards, confirming previous Charleville virus sequence and finding that, unlike a previous sequence report but in agreement with serologic reports, Almpiwar virus is clearly distinct from Charleville virus. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis revealed that most known rhabdoviruses of squamates cluster in the Almpiwar subgroup. The exception is Marco virus, which is found in the Hart Park group.Veterinary Microbiology 02/2012; 158(3-4):274-9. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A reliable technique is needed to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on white blood cell (WBC) counts. Facilities that utilize automated methods can provide this service. However, utilizing external facilities can introduce additional variables, such as differences between time of sample collection and time of sample processing, which may affect the results. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an automated method at an external facility can accurately determine radiation-induced changes in total WBC, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts when samples are analyzed at periods of time up to 24 hours after collection and stored either at room temperature or at 4°C. To accomplish this, we compared automated blood cell counts determined at an external facility with our manual blood cell counts processed immediately after sample collection or 24 h after sample collection and stored either at room temperature or 4°C from mice exposed to 2 Gy proton or 2 Gy gamma radiation. Our results show a close correlation and good agreement between the two methods, indicating that neither a delay of 24 hours in sample processing nor storage temperature affected white blood cell counts. Analysis of the effects of radiation on blood cell counts by either manual or automated cell counts revealed a statistically significant decrease in lymphocyte and granulocyte counts at different days post-irradiation, with no statistically significant difference between the methods employed; therefore both manual and automated blood cell counts are reliable methods to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in blood cells.International journal of biomedical science : IJBS. 03/2012; 8(1):7-15.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Wright-Giemsa staining is a common procedure that is performed routinely in hematology laboratories. Consistency in intra-laboratory staining quality is essential for accurate morphological interpretation of blood smears. Although the Wright-Giemsa stain can be challenging to perform, the methods illustrated here have provided consistent, high quality stains in the Special Hematology Laboratory at the University of Minnesota for over half a century. We outline methods for collecting blood specimens, preparing the slides and performing a Wright-Giemsa stain using our combination of reagents. Various techniques that have been passed down in our laboratory for troubleshooting suboptimally stained specimens are shared as well.Biotechnic & Histochemistry 04/2011; 86(2):69-75. · 0.67 Impact Factor