The Wright-Giemsa stain - Secrets revealed
ABSTRACT The colorful story of the development of the Wright-Giemsa stain is retold. Dramas are replayed, secrets are exposed, and laurels are properly returned to scientists long forgotten. The delicately balanced chemical composition of the stain, once enigmatic, is defined. Finally, an attempt is made to unshroud some of the mystery surrounding the staining method; tried-and-true procedures and useful snippets of laboratory lore are provided. Scientific explanations and reliable methods aside, however, the stain continues to possess a certain mystique, seemingly consisting of equal parts technical expertise, art, and magic.
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ABSTRACT: Rhabdoviruses infect a variety of hosts, including non-avian reptiles. Consensus PCR techniques were used to obtain partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene sequence from five rhabdoviruses of South American lizards; Marco, Chaco, Timbo, Sena Madureira, and a rhabdovirus from a caiman lizard (Dracaena guianensis). The caiman lizard rhabdovirus formed inclusions in erythrocytes, which may be a route for infecting hematophagous insects. This is the first information on behavior of a rhabdovirus in squamates. We also obtained sequence from two rhabdoviruses of Australian lizards, confirming previous Charleville virus sequence and finding that, unlike a previous sequence report but in agreement with serologic reports, Almpiwar virus is clearly distinct from Charleville virus. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis revealed that most known rhabdoviruses of squamates cluster in the Almpiwar subgroup. The exception is Marco virus, which is found in the Hart Park group.Veterinary Microbiology 02/2012; 158(3-4):274-9. DOI:10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.02.020 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A reliable technique is needed to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on white blood cell (WBC) counts. Facilities that utilize automated methods can provide this service. However, utilizing external facilities can introduce additional variables, such as differences between time of sample collection and time of sample processing, which may affect the results. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether an automated method at an external facility can accurately determine radiation-induced changes in total WBC, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts when samples are analyzed at periods of time up to 24 hours after collection and stored either at room temperature or at 4°C. To accomplish this, we compared automated blood cell counts determined at an external facility with our manual blood cell counts processed immediately after sample collection or 24 h after sample collection and stored either at room temperature or 4°C from mice exposed to 2 Gy proton or 2 Gy gamma radiation. Our results show a close correlation and good agreement between the two methods, indicating that neither a delay of 24 hours in sample processing nor storage temperature affected white blood cell counts. Analysis of the effects of radiation on blood cell counts by either manual or automated cell counts revealed a statistically significant decrease in lymphocyte and granulocyte counts at different days post-irradiation, with no statistically significant difference between the methods employed; therefore both manual and automated blood cell counts are reliable methods to determine the effects of ionizing radiation in blood cells.03/2012; 8(1):7-15.
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ABSTRACT: With recent advances in molecular techniques, collecting blood from birds has become a common practice among field ornithologists. There are a variety of techniques for collecting blood samples and numerous caveats for how samples should be processed, depending on the research question being asked. Currently, few resources are available for individuals learning how to collect blood from birds or needing more information about how to process blood samples. Here, I describe commonly used methods for collecting, processing, and storing blood for particular research objectives, and provide answers to frequently asked questions about blood collection. The information provided is intended primarily for investigators working with passerines, but many techniques and suggestions are applicable to other avian taxa.RESUMENCon los recientes avances en las técnicas moleculares, la colecta de sangre de las aves se ha convertido en una práctica común entre los ornitólogos de campo. Hay una variedad de técnicas para colectar muestras de sangre y numerosas advertencias de cómo deberán ser procesadas, en función a la pregunta de investigación. En la actualidad, hay pocos recursos disponibles para personas que están aprendiendo como colectar sangre de las aves, o para los que necesitan más información acerca de cómo procesar las muestras de sangre. Aquí, describo los métodos comúnmente utilizados para colectar, procesar y almacenar la sangre, dependiendo de los objetivos de la investigación en particular, y proveo respuestas a las preguntas más frecuentes acerca de la colecta de sangre. La información proporcionada está dirigida principalmente a los investigadores que trabajan con aves paseriformes, pero muchas técnicas y sugerencias son aplicables a otros grupos taxonómicos de aves.Journal of Field Ornithology 12/2011; 82(4). DOI:10.1111/j.1557-9263.2011.00338.x · 1.20 Impact Factor