Regulation of retinoic acid-induced inhibition of AP-1 activity by orphan receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor.
ABSTRACT Retinoids are therapeutically effective in the treatment of various cancers, and some of the therapeutic action of retinoids can be ascribed to their potent inhibition of AP-1 activity that regulates transcription of genes associated with cell growth. We recently reported that the expression of orphan receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor (COUP-TF) plays a role in mediating the growth inhibitory effect of trans-retinoic acid (trans-RA) in cancer cells. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism by which COUP-TF regulates trans-RA activity, we evaluated the effect of COUP-TF on antagonism of AP-1 activity by trans-RA. Our results demonstrated a positive correlation between COUP-TF expression and the ability of trans-RA to inhibit AP-1 activity in various cancer cell lines. In transient transfection assay, expression of COUP-TF strongly inhibited tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced AP-1 transactivation activity and transactivation of c-Jun/c-Fos in both a trans-RA-dependent and -independent manner. In vitro studies demonstrated that the addition of COUP-TF inhibited c-Jun DNA binding through a direct protein-protein interaction that is mediated by the DNA binding domain of COUP-TF and the leucine zipper of c-Jun. Stable expression of COUP-TF in COUP-TF-negative MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells restored the ability of trans-RA to inhibit 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced c-Jun expression. The effect of COUP-TF in enhancing the trans-RA-induced antagonism of AP-1 activity required expression of retinoic acid receptors (RARs), since stable expression of COUP-TF in COUP-TF-negative HT-1376 bladder cancer cells, which do not express RARalpha and RARbeta, failed to restore trans-RA-induced AP-1 repression. Thus, COUP-TF, through its physical interaction with AP-1, promotes anticancer effects of retinoids by potentiating their anti-AP-1 activity.
Article: Genome-wide analysis of binding sites and direct target genes of the orphan nuclear receptor NR2F1/COUP-TFI.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Identification of bona fide direct nuclear receptor gene targets has been challenging but essential for understanding regulation of organismal physiological processes. We describe a methodology to identify transcription factor binding sites and target genes in vivo by intersecting microarray data, computational binding site queries, and evolutionary conservation. We provide detailed experimental validation of each step and, as a proof of principle, utilize the methodology to identify novel direct targets of the orphan nuclear receptor NR2F1 (COUP-TFI). The first step involved validation of microarray gene expression profiles obtained from wild-type and COUP-TFI(-/-) inner ear tissues. Secondly, we developed a bioinformatic tool to search for COUP-TFI DNA binding sites in genomes, using a classification-type Hidden Markov Model trained with 49 published COUP-TF response elements. We next obtained a ranked list of candidate in vivo direct COUP-TFI targets by integrating the microarray and bioinformatics analyses according to the degree of binding site evolutionary conservation and microarray statistical significance. Lastly, as proof-of-concept, 5 specific genes were validated for direct regulation. For example, the fatty acid binding protein 7 (Fabp7) gene is a direct COUP-TFI target in vivo because: i) we identified 2 conserved COUP-TFI binding sites in the Fabp7 promoter; ii) Fapb7 transcript and protein levels are significantly reduced in COUP-TFI(-/-) tissues and in MEFs; iii) chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates that COUP-TFI is recruited to the Fabp7 promoter in vitro and in vivo and iv) it is associated with active chromatin having increased H3K9 acetylation and enrichment for CBP and SRC-1 binding in the newborn brain. We have developed and validated a methodology to identify in vivo direct nuclear receptor target genes. This bioinformatics tool can be modified to scan for response elements of transcription factors, cis-regulatory modules, or any flexible DNA pattern.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(1):e8910. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The orphan receptors COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that play distinct and critical roles in vertebrate organogenesis, as demonstrated by loss-of-function COUP-TFI and/or COUP-TFII mutant mice. Although COUP-TFs are expressed in a wide range of tissues in adults, little is known about their functions at later stages of development or in organism homeostasis. COUP-TFs are expressed in cancer cell lines of various origins and increasing studies suggest they play roles in cell fate determination and, potentially, in cancer progression. Nevertheless, the exact roles of COUP-TFs in these processes remain unclear and even controversial. In this review, we report both in vitro and in vivo data describing known and suspected actions of COUP-TFs that suggest that these factors are involved in modification of the phenotype of cancer cells, notably of epithelial origin.Cancers. 01/2011;