The effect of estrogens and dietary calcium deficiency on the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage in Göttingen miniature pigs.
ABSTRACT Clinical observations have suggested that estrogens are involved in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoarthritis (OA). However, positive and negative associations between the incidence of OA and serum estrogen concentrations have been reported. In contrast to this, osteoporosis is regarded as a disease with a strong estrogen-dependent component. Moreover, there is an interaction between estrogen and calcium deficiency: calcium supplementation potentiates the effect of estrogen therapy. The present study was designed to investigate how estrogen deficiency affects the articular cartilage depending on calcium supply. The distribution of different types of glycosaminoglycans and collagens can be used as an indicator for extracellular matrix changes induced by estrogen deficiency. Different levels of dietary calcium were therefore fed to intact and ovariectomized Göttingen miniature pigs for one year before articular cartilage was harvested. The histochemical staining for heavy sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of ovariectomized miniature pigs, especially of those fed with a low calcium diet, was stronger in comparison to intact animals. In intact animals type II-collagen was immunodetected in all zones of unmineralized and mineralized articular cartilage, while immunostaining for this protein was negative to weak in the deep radiated fiber zone of ovariectomized minipigs. These results suggest that the synthesis of heavy sulfated glycosaminoglycans and immunohistochemically detectable type II-collagen is possibly influenced by estrogen deficiency. In conclusion, under estrogen deficiency, the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage underwent similar changes to those observed in physiologically aging cartilage where keratan sulfate is increased as a heavy sulfated glycosaminoglycan.
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ABSTRACT: Ecdysteroids are steroids found in invertebrates and plants. In mammals they have protein anabolic effects. We have recently published antiosteoporotic effects of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) extract and the search for the possible active ingredients yielded the presence of beta-Ecdysone (Ecd). Therefore, we investigated the effects of pure Ecd in ovariectomized rats on morphological changes in joint, epiphyseal cartilage and trabecular tissue. Following ovariectomy rats were fed for 1 month with Ecd containing food at a dose of 52.8 mg/day/animal. Positive and negative control animals received 17-beta Estradiol (E(2), 132 microg/day/animal) and soy free (sf) food respectively. At sacrifice, specimens consisting of upper tibiae-lower femurs and knee joint were harvested and processed for histomorphometry. The parameters measured included thickness of the joint cartilage, thickness of the whole epiphyseal growth plate and its three zones. Furthermore, the percentage of trabecular bone in the metaphysis region of tibiae was quantified. Ecd and E(2) induced a significant increase in the thickness of joint cartilage. The whole epiphyseal growth plate and its proliferative and hypertrophic zones were also increased by Ecd whereas E(2) reduced their size. The percentage of trabecular area in the metaphysis of tibia was significantly increased in Ecd and E(2) treated animals. Results provide a plausible explanation for the antiosteoporotic effects of TC. Hence, TC as well as other Ecd producing plants or pure Ecd may be of value in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis which is of increasing importance due to aging and obesity among individuals.Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 04/2010; 17(5):350-5. · 2.97 Impact Factor
- Clinical Biochemistry - CLIN BIOCHEM. 01/2011; 44(13).
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ABSTRACT: Sex hormones contribute to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) in both sexes. OA is normally not seen in pre-menopausal women, whereas men may develop the disease as early as the 30th year of life. OA also shows increased incidence in association with diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Recent years have seen characterization of essential components of a functional endocrinal network in the articular cartilage comprising not only sex hormones but apparently insulin, growth factors and various peptides as well. In this review, we summarize the latest information regarding the influence of sex hormones, insulin, growth factors and some peptides on healthy cartilage and their involvement in osteoarthritis. Both animal and human research data were considered. The results are presented in an information matrix that identifies what is known, with supporting references, and identifies areas for further investigation.Progress in Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 02/2011; 45(4):239-93. · 3.78 Impact Factor