The effect of estrogens and dietary calcium deficiency on the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage in Göttingen miniature pigs.
ABSTRACT Clinical observations have suggested that estrogens are involved in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoarthritis (OA). However, positive and negative associations between the incidence of OA and serum estrogen concentrations have been reported. In contrast to this, osteoporosis is regarded as a disease with a strong estrogen-dependent component. Moreover, there is an interaction between estrogen and calcium deficiency: calcium supplementation potentiates the effect of estrogen therapy. The present study was designed to investigate how estrogen deficiency affects the articular cartilage depending on calcium supply. The distribution of different types of glycosaminoglycans and collagens can be used as an indicator for extracellular matrix changes induced by estrogen deficiency. Different levels of dietary calcium were therefore fed to intact and ovariectomized Göttingen miniature pigs for one year before articular cartilage was harvested. The histochemical staining for heavy sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of ovariectomized miniature pigs, especially of those fed with a low calcium diet, was stronger in comparison to intact animals. In intact animals type II-collagen was immunodetected in all zones of unmineralized and mineralized articular cartilage, while immunostaining for this protein was negative to weak in the deep radiated fiber zone of ovariectomized minipigs. These results suggest that the synthesis of heavy sulfated glycosaminoglycans and immunohistochemically detectable type II-collagen is possibly influenced by estrogen deficiency. In conclusion, under estrogen deficiency, the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage underwent similar changes to those observed in physiologically aging cartilage where keratan sulfate is increased as a heavy sulfated glycosaminoglycan.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of the experiment was to assess the effects of fluoride (F-) on the remodeling process of cortical bone. Sixteen pigs, eight experimental animals receiving a supplement of 2 mg F-/kg b.w. and eight controls, were studied in individual sites from age 8 to 14 months. At slaughter samples of cortical bone were obtained from the right femur and embedded undecalcified. A new stereologic model based on fluorochrome tissue time markers and isotropic uniform random histologic sections was implied in order to obtain information in three-dimensional terms about dynamic aspects of remodeling. The rate of remodeling was increased in cortical bone from pigs receiving F- due to an increased activation of new remodeling. A doubling of the length density of resorptive and formative osteons was observed, although the change was statistically significant for the formative osteons only. An 11% decrease in depth of resorption and an 8% decrease in thickness of new bone formed led to a small decrease in the radius of Haversian canals in the fluorotic bone. The porosity of cortical bone was slightly but significantly increased. At formative sites the osteoid thickness and the mineralization rate were not significantly changed by F-. It was concluded that the observed changes cannot be explained by F- induced changes in a single cell. Fluoride appears to affect all cells involved in remodeling by direct or indirect mechanisms.Bone 02/1989; 10(6):421-4. · 3.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of sex hormones on the protein and collagen content of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc of adult male and female rats. One hundred forty-four Wistar rats were assigned to 14 groups of 12 each. Two groups, one female and one male, served as a control and received no treatment, and two other groups (one female and one male) received a sham gonadectomy and placebo hormone. The remaining 10 groups (five males and five females) received either orchiectomy or ovariectomy, followed by administration of estrogen, progesterone, combined estrogen and progesterone, or testosterone. The total protein and collagen content of the TMJ disc were determined using the calorimetric hydroxyproline method. The collagen content of TMJ discs of control males was statistically greater than the collagen content of the control female rats. This difference disappeared after ovariectomy of females and orchiectomy of males. Also, there was a general trend for a decrease in collagen and protein content to be produced by estrogen, progesterone, and by estrogen combined with progesterone in castrated male and female rats, and by orchiectomy of male rats. There was also a trend toward an increase in collagen and protein content after ovariectomy in female rats and administration of testosterone to castrated male and female rats. However, the only statistically significant effect of the drugs tested was that of estrogen combined with progesterone in ovariectomized female rats (a lowering effect on the total protein) and of estrogen alone in orchiectomized male rats (a lowering effect on the collagen content). Steroid sex hormones have an effect on the collagen and protein content of the TMJ disc of the rat as indicated by the difference in the values between control males and females and by the disappearance of this difference on castration of both male and female animals. This was also manifested by the significant effect of estradiol on collagen content of castrated males, by the effect of estrogen combined with progesterone on the protein content of castrated females.Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 07/1996; 54(6):721-7; discussion 727-8. · 1.33 Impact Factor
Article: Estrogens and Osteoarthritis[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Clinical and laboratory observations suggest that a relationship exists between sex hormones and the development of osteoarthritis. The mechanisms whereby these hormones influence the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis have been explored. Tamoxifen, an estrogen antagonist, reduced erosive changes in meniscectomy-induced osteoarthritis in rabbits. By contrast, estradiol worsened it. There was no effect of either agent on the incidence of osteophytes in this model. Both estradiol and tamoxifen affected proteoglycan, prostaglandin, and proteoglycanase production by cartilage components. These observations suggest that cartilage is a sex hormone-sensitive tissue. This may have therapeutic implications in the future. (C) Lippincott-Raven Publishers.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 11/1986; 213. · 2.79 Impact Factor