Development of a new medium useful for the recovery of dermatophytes from clinical specimens by minimizing the carryover effect of antifungal agents.
ABSTRACT Two surface-active compounds, egg lecithin and polysorbate 80, usually used as the deactivators of various preservatives were tested whether they also counteract either or all of the three major topical antifungal drugs, bifonazole (BFZ), lanoconazole (LCZ) and terbinafine (TBF). Both egg lecithin and polysorbate 80, when added to culture media up to final concentrations of 1.0 and 0.7%, respectively, antagonized the anti-dermatophytic activity of the three drugs in a concentration-dependent manner. A greater extent of antagonistic action was exerted when the two deactivators combined at their maximal levels tested were added; MIC's of BFZ were increased more than 30-fold and those of LCZ and TBF more than 200-fold compared with the values obtained in the absence of the deactivators. Using the agar medium supplemented with the combined deactivators, culture studies were carried out with skin tissues specimens taken from guinea pigs whose feet were infected with dermatophytes and subsequently treated with 1% topical preparations of the three antifungal drugs. The experimental data from this animal study demonstrated that the combined deactivators-supplemented medium yielded increased numbers of fungi compared with the basal medium. It looks, therefore, likely that the fungal recovery on the former medium more correctly reflects to actual fungal burden in the infected lesions than the latter. All these results suggest that the combined deactivators-supplemented medium is more useful for mycological evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of imidazole and allylamine drugs against dermatophytoses in both preclinical and clinical studies.
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ABSTRACT: The activity of egg lecithin in preventing the antifungal action of the two imidazole antimycotics, clotrimazole and miconazole, was confirmed. However, addition of this phospholipid could not relieve an existing imidazole inhibition. Compared with egg lecithin, reduced egg lecithin showed no such protective effect. The addition of egg lecithin to an aqueous suspension of the imidazole drugs changed the absorption profile of the imidazole, suggesting a low solubility and, consequently, a lower effective concentration; however, the addition of reduced egg lecithin did not produce any change in the adsorption. These results indicate that the preventive effect of egg lecithin on imidazole inhibition may be a consequence of preferential in vitro interaction of the drug with unsaturated phospholipid to form a hydrophobic complex.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/1978; 13(3):423-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The specific affinity for membrane lipids and the membrane selectivity of three imidazole derivatives, clotrimazole, miconazole, and econazole, were studied using various types of liposomes with respect to the lecithin fatty acyl group composition and the liposome content and composition of sterol as membrane models. The sensitivity of liposomes to these drugs was primarily dependent upon the lecithin fatty acyl group composition. With sterol-free liposome systems, each imidazole induced maximum release of trapped glucose as a marker from the unsaturated dioleoyl lecithin liposomes, minimum release from the saturated dipalmitoyl lecithin liposomes, and intermediate release from egg lecithin liposomes. The sensitivity of the dipalmitoyl lecithin liposomes to any imidazole drug was not influenced by the incorporation of cholesterol or ergosterol. On the other hand, clotrimazole-induced permeability changes of liposomes prepared from unsaturated dioleoyl lecithin or egg lecithin were greatly enhanced by the incorporation of ergosterol, whereas they were suppressed by cholesterol incorporation. The sensitivity of liposomes prepared from these unsaturated lecithins to miconazole and econazole was also augmented by ergosterol incorporation, although it was scarcely altered by cholesterol incorporation. Negatively charged liposomes were more sensitive to the three imidazole drugs than positively charged liposomes.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 06/1979; 15(5):706-11. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Asbestos-vinyl tile floor panels were mopped with three types of chemical disinfectant product, as well as after contact, with the untreated control panel were prepared according to the manufacturer's label instructions. Similar floor panels were inoculated artificially with Staphylococcus aureus. RODAC (replicate organism detection and counting) surface sampling plates were pressed to the disinfectant-treated panels or to the untreated control panel and then immediately pressed to sampling sites on the artificially inoculated floor panels. Plate counts were determined after contact with panels treated with each type of disinfectant, product, as well as after contact with the untreated control panel. Results indicate that disinfectant residues on environmental surfaces do not alter the average plate counts obtained by RODAC samplings.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 08/1976; 32(1):80-4. · 3.68 Impact Factor