Development of a new medium useful for the recovery of dermatophytes from clinical specimens by minimizing the carryover effect of antifungal agents.
ABSTRACT Two surface-active compounds, egg lecithin and polysorbate 80, usually used as the deactivators of various preservatives were tested whether they also counteract either or all of the three major topical antifungal drugs, bifonazole (BFZ), lanoconazole (LCZ) and terbinafine (TBF). Both egg lecithin and polysorbate 80, when added to culture media up to final concentrations of 1.0 and 0.7%, respectively, antagonized the anti-dermatophytic activity of the three drugs in a concentration-dependent manner. A greater extent of antagonistic action was exerted when the two deactivators combined at their maximal levels tested were added; MIC's of BFZ were increased more than 30-fold and those of LCZ and TBF more than 200-fold compared with the values obtained in the absence of the deactivators. Using the agar medium supplemented with the combined deactivators, culture studies were carried out with skin tissues specimens taken from guinea pigs whose feet were infected with dermatophytes and subsequently treated with 1% topical preparations of the three antifungal drugs. The experimental data from this animal study demonstrated that the combined deactivators-supplemented medium yielded increased numbers of fungi compared with the basal medium. It looks, therefore, likely that the fungal recovery on the former medium more correctly reflects to actual fungal burden in the infected lesions than the latter. All these results suggest that the combined deactivators-supplemented medium is more useful for mycological evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of imidazole and allylamine drugs against dermatophytoses in both preclinical and clinical studies.
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ABSTRACT: Dermatophytes are keratinolytic fungi responsible for a large variety of diseases that can affect glabrous skin, nails and hair. In many cases, the diagnosis is not clinically obvious, and mycological analysis is required. This includes both direct microscopic examination and cultures. First of all, clinical specimens have to be sampled according to localization and characteristics of the lesions. Direct microscopic examination is usually performed using clearing reagents (KOH or Amman's chloral-lactophenol), but its sensitivity may be greatly enhanced by the use of stains or fluorochromes such as Congo red or Calcofluor white. Histological analysis is an efficient method, but it is constraining for the patients and, as direct examination, it does not allow precise identification of the pathogen. Cultures are therefore needed, and specific culture media may be used to overcome the growth of rapidly growing contaminating moulds which may hamper the recovery of dermatophytes. Identification at the species level which may be useful to initiate an appropriate treatment or for setting prophylactic measures, relies on macroscopic and microscopic morphology. Subcultures on culture media which stimulate conidiation and, for some species, the production of pigments, are often necessary. Additionally, in case of atypical isolates, some biochemical or physiological tests may be performed such as the search for urease activity or the in vitro hair perforation test. However, their contribution to species identification is rather limited, and progress is still needed for the development of biochemical or immunological tests allowing an accurate identification at the species level, pending for the availability of molecular biology-based kits.Mycopathologia 06/2008; 166(5-6):295-306. · 1.49 Impact Factor
Article: Animal model of dermatophytosis.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host's normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the present paper, we surveyed reports about the methodology of the dermatophytosis animal model for tinea corporis, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium and discussed future prospects.BioMed Research International 01/2012; 2012:125384. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Luliconazole is a novel topical antifungal imidazole with broad-spectrum and potent antifungal activity. The drug is under clinical development in the United States for management of dermatophytosis with a short-term treatment regimen. The present study was undertaken to investigate the clinical benefit of short-term therapy with luliconazole cream in guinea pig models of tinea corporis and tinea pedis induced with Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The dose-dependent therapeutic efficacy of topical luliconazole cream (0.02 to 1%), measured by macroscopic improvement of skin lesions and by fungal eradication as determined by a culture assay, was demonstrated using a tinea corporis model. The improvement in skin lesions seen with luliconazole cream was observed even at a concentration of 0.02%, and its efficacy at 0.1% was equal to that of 1% bifonazole cream. The efficacy of short-term therapy with 1% luliconazole cream, which is used for clinical management, was investigated using the tinea corporis model (4- and 8-day treatment regimens) and the tinea pedis model (7- and 14-day treatment regimens). The 1% luliconazole cream completely eradicated the fungus in half or less of the treatment time required for 1% terbinafine cream and 1% bifonazole cream, as determined by a culture assay for both models. These results clearly indicate that 1% luliconazole cream is sufficiently potent for short-term treatment for dermatophytosis compared to existing drugs. Luliconazole is expected to be useful in the clinical management of dermatophytosis.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 03/2012; 56(6):3138-43. · 4.57 Impact Factor