Prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
ABSTRACT The prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma is related to the stage of the tumor at diagnosis and to the degree of liver function impairment induced either by the tumor itself or by the underlying cirrhosis. Any prognostic prediction should also take into account the potential impact of therapeutic interventions. Only surgical resection, liver transplantation and percutaneous ablation achieve a relatively high rate of complete responses in patients with tumors diagnosed at an early stage and may improve survival. By contrast, patients diagnosed at an advanced stage will receive palliative treatment with unproven survival benefits. Each stage and each treatment have their specific prognostic predictors. Thus, the most accurate prognostic system will have to use a specific model for each strata at which patients may be diagnosed: early, intermediate-advanced and terminal. Patients at an early stage may achieve a 5-year survival rate above 50%, those at intermediate-advanced present a 20-50% survival at 3 years and those at terminal stage die within six months. In addition to predicting prognosis, the staging system should also guide the selection of treatment and this is the major advantage of the classification applied in the Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer Group.
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ABSTRACT: AIM: To analyze whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation is an effective bridging therapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: From January 2007 to December 2010, 49 consecutive HCC patients were listed for liver transplantation (UCSF criteria). The median waiting time for transplantation was 9.5 mo. Twenty-nine patients received transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) as a bringing therapy and 16 patients received no treatment before transplantation. Five patients received HIFU ablation as a bridging therapy. Another five patients with the same tumor staging (within the UCSF criteria) who received HIFU ablation but not on the transplant list were included for comparison. Patients were comparable in terms of Child-Pugh and model for end-stage liver disease scores, tumor size and number, and cause of cirrhosis. RESULTS: The HIFU group and TACE group showed no difference in terms of tumor size and tumor number. One patient in the HIFU group and no patient in the TACE group had gross ascites. The median hospital stay was 1 d (range, 1-21 d) in the TACE group and two days (range, 1-9 d) in the HIFU group (P < 0.000). No HIFU-related complication occurred. In the HIFU group, nine patients (90%) had complete response and one patient (10%) had partial response to the treatment. In the TACE group, only one patient (3%) had response to the treatment while 14 patients (48%) had stable disease and 14 patients (48%) had progressive disease (P = 0.00). Seven patients in the TACE group and no patient in the HIFU group dropped out from the transplant waiting list (P = 0.559). CONCLUSION: HIFU ablation is safe and effective in the treatment of HCC for patients with advanced cirrhosis. It may reduce the drop-out rate of liver transplant candidate.World Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2013; 19(20):3083-3089. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sorafenib currently sets the new standard for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been suggested that Asian patients with HCC have increased susceptibility to hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) related to sorafenib therapy. The authors investigated the association between sorafenib-induced HFSR and genetic polymorphisms in Korean patients with HCC. METHODS: For this prospective cohort study, the authors enrolled 59 consecutive patients with intermediate stage HCC from 5 centers in Korea. All patients received sorafenib 400 mg twice daily in combination with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Genotyping was performed on a total of 49 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 candidate genes (minor allelic frequency ≥5%). Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays before therapy and 1 month after therapy. RESULTS: During a median treatment period of 18 months, 55 patients (93%) developed sorafenib-induced HFSR, including grade 1 reactions in 15 patients, grade 2 reactions in 27 patients, and grade 3 reaction in 13 patients. The SNPs TNF-α -308GG, VEGF -94GG, VEGF 1991CC, VEGF IVS3-28CC, and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1 family-polypeptide A9 (UGT1A9) IVS1-37431AA were associated significantly with the development of high-grade (grade 2 or 3) HFSR in univariate analysis (P < .05). In multivariate analysis, the SNPs VEGF 1991CC (odds ratio, 45.7), TNF-α -308GG (odds ratio, 44.1), and UGT1A9 IVS1-37431AA (odds ratio, 18.7) were identified as independent risk factors for the development of high-grade HFSR (P = .01, P = .02, and P = .02, respectively). He serum TNF-α level measured 1 month after sorafenib therapy was correlated significantly with the development of high-grade HFSR (odds ratio, 3.56; P = .026). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the incidence of HFSR may have been caused by ethnic differences in genetic polymorphisms of the TNF-α, VEGF, and UGT1A9 genes, especially in relation to the expression of serum TNF-α after sorafenib therapy. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.Cancer 06/2012; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an extraordinary phenomenon that occurs rarely. While more than 80 cases have been described, most have been established via radiological findings or examination of biopsy tissues rather than via pathological examination of a resected specimen. The present report describes a purported case of spontaneous regression of HCC as indicated by radiological examination. Subsequent immunostaining of surgically resected specimens revealed viable cancer cells, though only necrotic tissues were seen on hematoxylin and eosin staining. These data indicate that viable cancer cells may still be present even if imaging findings suggest spontaneous regression of HCC. Therefore, these patients should receive aggressive treatment similar to that used for patients with established HCC.Case Reports in Gastroenterology 01/2013; 7(1):147-52.