When Ets transcription factors meet their partners.
ABSTRACT Ets proteins are a family of transcription factors that regulate the expression of a myriad of genes in a variety of tissues and cell types. This functional versatility emerges from their interactions with other structurally unrelated transcription factors. Indeed, combinatorial control is a characteristic property of Ets family members, involving interactions between Ets and other key transcriptional factors such as AP1, SRF, and Pax family members. Intriguingly, recent molecular modeling and crystallographic data suggest that not only the ETS DNA-binding domain, but also the DNA recognition helix alpha3, are often directly required for Ets partner's selection. Indeed, while most DNA-binding proteins appear to exploit differences within their DNA recognition helices for sites selection, the Ets proteins exploit differences in their surfaces that interact with other transcription factors, which in turn may modify their DNA-binding properties in a promoter-specific fashion. Taken together, the gene-specific architecture of these unique complexes can mediate the selective control of transcriptional activity.
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ABSTRACT: Cardiac development is complex, multiscale process encompassing cell fate adoption, differentiation and morphogenesis. To elucidate pathways underlying this process, a recently developed algorithm to reverse engineer gene regulatory networks was applied to time-course microarray data obtained from the developing mouse heart. The algorithm generates many different putative network topologies that are capable of explaining the experimental data via model simulation. To cull specious network interactions, thousands of topologies are merged and filtered to generate a scale-free, hierarchical network. The network is validated with known gene interactions and used to identify regulatory pathways critical to the developing mammalian heart. The predicted gene interactions are prioritized using semantic similarity and gene profile uniqueness metrics. Using these metrics, the network is expanded to include all known mouse genes to form the most likely cardiogenic gene regulatory network. The method outlined herein provides an informative approach to network inference and leads to clear testable hypotheses related to gene regulation.10/2013;
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ABSTRACT: Induction of type I interferon is a central event of innate immunity, essential for host defense. Here we report that the transcription factor ELF4 is induced by type I interferon and upregulates interferon expression in a feed-forward loop. ELF4 deficiency leads to reduced interferon production, resulting in enhanced susceptibility to West Nile virus encephalitis in mice. After viral infection, ELF4 is recruited by STING, interacts with and is activated by the MAVS-TBK1 complex, and translocates into the nucleus to bind interferon promoters. Cooperative binding with ELF4 increases the binding affinity of interferon regulatory factors IRF3 and IRF7, which is mediated by EICE elements. Thus, in addition to identifying a regulator of innate immune signaling, we uncovered a role for EICE elements in interferon transactivation.Nature Immunology 11/2013; · 26.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Ets family of eukaryotic transcription factors is based around the conserved Ets DNA-binding domain. Although their DNA-binding selectivity is biochemically and structurally well characterized, structures of homodimeric and ternary complexes point to Ets domains functioning as versatile protein-interaction modules. In the present paper, we review the progress made over the last decade to elucidate the structural mechanisms involved in modulation of DNA binding and protein partner selection during dimerization. We see that Ets domains, although conserved around a core architecture, have evolved to utilize a variety of interaction surfaces and binding mechanisms, reflecting Ets domains as dynamic interfaces for both DNA and protein interaction. Furthermore, we discuss recent advances in drug development for inhibition of Ets factors, and the roles structural biology can play in their future.Biochemical Society Transactions 02/2014; 42(1):130-8. · 2.59 Impact Factor