Oxidative DNA damage induced by equine estrogen metabolites: role of estrogen receptor alpha.
ABSTRACT Excessive exposure to synthetic and endogenous estrogens has been associated with the development of cancer in several tissues. 4-Hydroxyequilenin (4-OHEN), a major metabolite of equine estrogens present in estrogen replacement formulations, has been shown to induce cytotoxic/carcinogenic effects. In the present study, we have found that 4-OHEN caused DNA damage in breast cancer cells, and cells that contain estrogen receptor alpha (S30) are more sensitive to 4-OHEN-mediated DNA damage as compared to estrogen receptor negative cells (MDA-MB-231). For example, concentration-dependent increases in 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG), as measured by LC-MS-MS or by the Fpg comet assay, were only detected in the S30 cells, and the amount of this lesion could be enhanced by agents, which catalyze redox cycling (NADH) or deplete GSH (diethyl maleate). The role of the estrogen receptor in modulating DNA damage was further established in incubations with the ER antagonist tamoxifen, where decreases in 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine were observed. Another equine estrogen metabolite, 4,17 beta-hydroxyequilenin (4,17 beta-OHEN), was found to have the same cytotoxicity and a similar ability to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caused the same oxidative DNA damage in S30 cells as compared to 4-OHEN. However, 4,17 beta-OHEN induced twice as much single strand DNA breaks in S30 cells compared to 4-OHEN. Also 4,17 beta-OHEN was more estrogenic than 4-OHEN as demonstrated by a higher binding affinity for ER alpha and an enhanced induction in activity of estrogen-dependent alkaline phosphatase in Ishikawa cells. These data suggest that the mechanism of DNA damage induced by equine estrogen metabolites could involve oxidative stress and that the estrogen receptor may play a role in this process.
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ABSTRACT: Early studies documented the existence of sexual dimorphism in bladder cancer occurrence and progression, with a greater bladder cancer incidence in males than females. However, the progression of bladder cancer after diagnosis is much quicker in females than males. These findings can be explained by the effects of female hormones (predominantly oestrogens) and their binding receptors, including oestrogen receptor 1 (ESR1; also known as ERα), oestrogen receptor 2 (ESR2; also known as ERβ), and GPR30 protein on bladder cancer incidence and progression. Results from studies using various in vitro cell lines and in vivo mouse models demonstrate differential roles of oestrogen receptors in cancer initiation and progression. ERα suppresses bladder cancer initiation and invasion, whereas ERβ promotes bladder cancer initiation and progression. Mechanistic studies suggest that ERα and ERβ exert these effects via modulation of the AKT pathway and DNA replication complex, respectively. Targeting these signalling pathways-for example, with ERα agonists, ERβ antagonists, or selective oestrogen receptor modulators such as 4-[2-phenyl-5,7-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]phenol (also known as PHTPP)-could lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches for controlling bladder cancer progression.Nature Reviews Urology 04/2013; · 4.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objectives of this investigation were to examine whether airborne particles induce DNA damaging and estrogen-disrupting effects and to explore the relationships between them. In this study, airborne particulate was collected at an urban, a suburban, and a rural site in central Taiwan. The organic solvent extracts of airborne particulate were examined in human MCF-7 and T47D-KBluc breast cancer cells. We observed significant increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in MCF-7 cells after treatment with the particulate extracts whereas aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) antagonist blocked the particulate-induced ROS generation in cells. Further, induction of CYP1A1 protein expression was confirmed by immunoblots in cells treated with airborne particles, suggesting the roles of AhR status in mediating the particulate-induced toxicity. In addition, we observed that at non-cytotoxic concentration (∼0.01 m(3) air equivalent), airborne particles induced decreases in intracellular NAD(P)H and NAD(+) in MCF-7 cells. These decreases were completely blocked by three types of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors. Moreover, we demonstrated increases in the number of DNA strand breaks in MCF-7 cells exposed to airborne particles as measured by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Overall, this evidence confirms that airborne particles induce decreases in intracellular NAD(P)H and NAD(+) through PARP-1 activation mediated by formation of DNA strand breaks. Furthermore, we confirmed that with series dilution airborne particles (∼10(-7)-10(-2) m(3) air equivalent) possess both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities as determined by the ERα-mediated reporter gene assay in human T47D-KBluc breast cancer cells. In conclusions, we confirmed that the DNA-damaging activity and estrogenicity of airborne particles varied considerably with concentration (air equivalent). Our findings add further support to the theme that ROS formation is a significant determinant factor in mediating the induction of oxidative DNA damage and repair in human breast cancer cells exposed to airborne particles and that oxidative stress and the subsequent induction of DNA damage may, in part, contribute to airborne particle-induced carcinogenesis.Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 01/2013; 48(2):173-81.
- Ankara üniversitesi tıp fakültesi dergisi. 06/2012; 65(1):39-45.