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    • "arizonae, for example, has been previously reported in wild boar in Spain [10], from poultry, sheep [29] and exotic reptiles [30]. S. choleraesuis, S. typhimurium and S. veneziana have been previously isolated from wild boars [16,17,27,28,31–33], humans [34] and domestic pigs [4]. The isolation of S. enterica 4,[5],12:i-, which is a monophasic variant of S. typhimurium, is noteworthy because, it has been reported among the 10 most frequently isolated serovars in pigs, humans and wild birds [35]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of Salmonella spp. infection was determined in 499 wild boars harvested during the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 hunting seasons in the Latium Region of Italy. We conducted a microbiological assessment on faeces collected at slaughter and we examined serum samples for the presence of antibodies to Salmonella spp. by ELISA assay. Out of 383 serum samples examined, 255 (66.5%) were positive for Salmonella spp. antibodies. Overall, 10.8% (54/499) of the animals were positive by microbiological assessment. The Salmonellae most frequently isolated were S. enterica subsp. salamae II (24%), S. enterica subsp. Diarizonae III b (12.9%), S. enterica subsp. houtenae IV (11.1%) and S. Fischerhuette (7.4%); less common Salmonella isolates included S. Veneziana (5.5%), S. Napoli (5.5%), S. Kottbus (5.5%), S. Thompson (5.5%), S. enterica subsp. arizonae III a (3.7%), S. Toulon (3.7%), S. Burgas (1.8%), S. Tennelhone (1.8%), S. Ferruch (1.8%), S. choleraesuis (1.8%), S. Paratyphi (1.8%), S. Stanleyville (1.8%), S. Typhimurium (1.8%) and S. enterica subsp. enterica 4,5,12:1:- (1.8%). These isolates were tested against 16 antimicrobial agents and exhibited resistance to sulphonamides (92.5%), sulphonamides and thrimetroprim (14.8%), colistin (14.8%), streptomycin (18.5%), gentamycin (5.5%), tetracycline (5.5%), ceftiofur (3.7%), cefazoline (1.8%), cefotaxime (1.8%), nalidixic acid (1.8%), amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (1.8%) and ampicillin (3.7%). Our data, the first collected on this species in Italy, suggest that European wild boars are frequent carriers of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonellae and are likely involved in the transmission of antimicrobial resistance throughout the environment.
    Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases 12/2012; 36(2). DOI:10.1016/j.cimid.2012.11.004 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The notion that Crohn's Disease (CD) occurs as a result of an aberrant reaction to the commensal mi-crobiota in genetically susceptible hosts is widely re-garded by physicians and scientists as fact. Yet al-though it is undisputed that Crohn's Disease is im-mune-mediated, an aberrant reaction to one's own native flora is far from proven. The aim of the cur-rent review is to present a summary of the known infectious causes of Crohn's Disease, whilst high-lighting the limitations of using outdated methods to attempt to classify the disease as a single entity. We propose a re-classification of Crohn's Disease, and suggest that the disease is best conceptualized as a syndrome, an "umbrella-like" term comprising a group of diseases with varying infective etiologies, which clinically, endoscopically and histologically are indistinguishable from CD.
    Open Journal of Internal Medicine 01/2012; 02(02). DOI:10.4236/ojim.2012.22020
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of Salmonella spp in children hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis, and to study clinical and microbiological features of paediatric salmonellosis in our geographical area. In all, 540 patients admitted from March to September 2003 with symptoms of acute enteritis to the Infectious Diseases department of the "G. Di Cristina" hospital in Palermo were enrolled. Stool samples were collected within 48 hours of admission and tested for intestinal pathogens (bacterial, viral, parasites). Salmonella spp was detected in 18.5% of samples. The median age of infected children was 4.5 years. Salmonella enteritidis (49%) and Salmonella typhimurium (37%) were the most commonly identified genotypes. S. enteritidis infection was more frequently characterized by vomiting (65.3%) and dehydration (61.2%). Bloody diarrhoea was more common in S. typhimurium infection (40.5%). All strains were susceptible to ceftriaxone, while 40% of strains were resistant to tetracyclines and 37% to ampicillin.
    Le infezioni in medicina: rivista periodica di eziologia, epidemiologia, diagnostica, clinica e terapia delle patologie infettive 04/2007; 15(1):24-9.
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