We investigated anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) volume in 40 patients with schizophrenia (20 males, 20 females) and 40 age-and sex-matched normal controls using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Volumes of the whole brain and both the gray and white matter of the ACG were measured on consecutive coronal 1-mm slices. There was no significant difference between the patients with schizophrenia and the normal controls in the whole brain volume. Right ACG gray matter volume was significantly reduced in the female patients with schizophrenia as compared with the female controls. Furthermore.in the female controls, ACG gray matter volume was significantly larger on the right than on the left, while this asymmetry was not significant in the female patients. ACG white matter findings were similar to those of the ACG gray matter in that the volume was significantly larger on the right in the female controls, and this normal structural asymmetry was reduced in the female patients. These results suggest that gender may play an important role in the structural asymmetry anomalies in schizophrenia.
"Stereological volumetric assessment of the AC grey matter volume was conducted using the MEASURE program and Cavalieri method (Barta et al., 1997), adopting the identification procedure described by Takahashi et al. (2002) (Figure 1). All AC grey matter volumes ratings, separately for the left and right hemispheres, were performed by a single trained rater (SU), who had high intra-and inter-rater (against PP, an experienced MEASURE rater) reliabilities and was kept blind to participant group membership to avoid any observer bias in rating results. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and schizophrenia, as well as childhood abuse, are associated with violent behaviour and show marked volumetric reduction in the anterior cingulate (AC), a brain region implicated in regulation of violence through its involvement in decision making, empathy, impulse control, and emotion regulation. The present study examined, for the first time to the authors' knowledge, the grey matter volume of the AC in relation to seriously violent behaviour and childhood psychosocial deprivation (including physical and sexual abuse) in the context of a mental disorder (schizophrenia or ASPD).
Fifty-seven men [14 with ASPD and a history of serious violence; 13 with schizophrenia and a history of serious violence (VSZ); 15 with schizophrenia without a violence history (SZ); 15 nonviolent healthy participants] underwent whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging and were rated on the presence of physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, extreme poverty, foster home placement, criminal parent, severe family conflict, and broken home (collectively 'psychosocial deprivation'). Stereological volumetric ratings of the AC were examined for group differences and their association with childhood psychosocial deprivation.
A higher proportion of ASPD and VSZ patients had suffered psychosocial deprivation as children, in particular severe physical abuse, relative to SZ patients and healthy participants. ASPD and VSZ, but not SZ, patients had significantly lower AC volume relative to healthy participants. AC volumes correlated negatively with (total) psychosocial deprivation as well as physical and sexual abuse ratings. Group differences in AC volume became nonsignificant when psychosocial deprivation ratings were covaried for.
Violent mentally disordered individuals with ASPD or schizophrenia suffer from a significant AC volume loss and this deficit, at least in part, is explained by their histories of stressful childhood experiences. Current and future therapies aiming to reduce violence in such populations would benefit by attending to biological (and other) correlates of childhood abuse.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 11/2013; 48(2). DOI:10.1177/0004867413512690 · 3.41 Impact Factor
"Although cytoarchitectonic explorations of the region consistently discriminate between the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, the boundary separating the two regions cannot be readily identified from clear proximal landmarks in an MR image, resulting in an array of approaches (summarised in Figure 3). Whilst some simply do not divide the cingulate gyrus into two at all (Convit et al. 2001; Sowell et al. 2002; Tzourio et al. 1997), the most commonly adopted landmarks for the ACC's posterior extent use sub-cortical markers such as the anterior commissure (Bremner et al. 2002; Fornito et al. 2006; Kaur et al. 2005; Nifosi et al. 2010; Paus et al. 1996; Takahashi et al. 2002; Tisserand et al. 2002; Yucel et al. 2008) which is thought to exclude the SMA (Jones et al., 2006), the most anterior or dorsal extents of the corpus callosum (Bremner et al 1998; Haznedaar et al. 1997; Ranta et al. 2009; Raz et al. 1995; Salat et al. 2001), the septum pellucidum (Noga et al. 1995) and mammillary bodies (Yamasue et al,. 2004), whilst others have selected more proximal cortical features such as where the ascending ramus of the "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Manual volumetric measurement of the brain's frontal lobe and its subregions from magnetic resonance images (MRIs) is an established method for researching neural correlates of clinical disorders or cognitive functions. However, there is no consensus between methods used to identify relevant boundaries of a given region of interest (ROI) on MRIs, and those used may bear little relation to each other or the underlying structural, functional and connective architecture. This presents challenges for the analysis and synthesis of such results. We therefore performed a systematic literature review to highlight variations in the anatomical boundaries used to measure frontal regions, contextualised by up-to-date evidence from histology, hodology and neuropsychology. We searched EMBASE and MEDLINE for studies in English reporting three-dimensional boundaries for manually delineating the brain's frontal lobe or sub-regional ROIs from MRIs. Exclusion criteria were: exclusive use of co-ordinate grid systems; insufficient detail to allow method replication; publication in grey literature only. Papers were assessed on quality criteria relating to bias, reproducibility and protocol rationale. There was a large degree of variability in the three-dimensional boundaries of all regions used by the 208 eligible papers. Half of the reports did not justify their rationale for boundary selection, and each paper met on average only three quarters of quality criteria. For the frontal lobe and each subregion (frontal pole, anterior cingulate, dorsolateral, inferior-lateral, and orbitofrontal) we identified reproducible methods for a biologically plausible target ROI. It is hoped that this synthesis will guide the design of future volumetric studies of cerebral structure.
Brain Structure and Function 03/2013; 219(1). DOI:10.1007/s00429-013-0527-5 · 5.62 Impact Factor
"The lateralization in cingulate cortex is also consistent with the structural asymmetries reported for the cingulate (Huster et al. 2007) and paracingulate cortices (Paus et al. 1996). Rightward lateralization of the cingulate cortex was more pronounced for females than for males and may be clinically significant since loss of the asymmetry in the anterior cingulate cortex was reported in female patients with schizophrenia (Takahashi et al. 2002). Our findings did not corroborate the rightward asymmetry of the functional connectivity strength in occipital-parietal cortices and insula previously reported in young adults using an ROI approach that did not distinguish between shortand long-range connections (Liu et al. 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lateralization of brain connectivity may be essential for normal brain function and may be sexually dimorphic. Here, we study the laterality patterns of short-range (implicated in functional specialization) and long-range (implicated in functional integration) connectivity and the gender effects on these laterality patterns. Parallel computing was used to quantify short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in 913 healthy subjects. Short-range connectivity was rightward lateralized and most asymmetrical in areas around the lateral sulcus, whereas long-range connectivity was rightward lateralized in lateral sulcus and leftward lateralizated in inferior prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus. The posterior inferior occipital cortex was leftward lateralized (short- and long-range connectivity). Males had greater rightward lateralization of brain connectivity in superior temporal (short- and long-range), inferior frontal, and inferior occipital cortices (short-range), whereas females had greater leftward lateralization of long-range connectivity in the inferior frontal cortex. The greater lateralization of the male's brain (rightward and predominantly short-range) may underlie their greater vulnerability to disorders with disrupted brain asymmetries (schizophrenia, autism).
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