Muscle fiber-type distribution pattern in the human cricopharyngeus muscle
ABSTRACT Our previous studies described that the human cricopharyngeus (CP) is composed of two neuromuscular compartments (NMCs), horizontal and oblique. The present study was designed to explore the differences in muscle fiber-type distribution between the NMCs within the human CP and to examine the oxidative capacity of the muscle fibers. Seven adult human CP muscles obtained from autopsies were stained for myofibrillar ATPase, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase (NADH-TR), and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) to analyze enzyme-histochemical fiber-type characteristics. Notable findings obtained from this study are as follows: (1) Different NMCs within the human CP contained different percentages of muscle fiber types. The horizontal CP (CPh) contained more slow-twitch fibers than the oblique CP (CPo). (2) Each of the NMCs was dividable histochemically into two layers or subcompartments: a slow fiber-type inner layer and a relatively fast fiber outer layer. (3) As a whole, type I fibers had higher levels of NADH-TR and SDH than type II fibers. However, in both type I and II muscle fiber types, different patterns of oxidative enzyme activity were seen. Histochemically defined fiber layers of the CP are not seen in other mammals, suggesting that CP function is more specialized in humans.
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ABSTRACT: The inferior pharyngeal constrictor (IPC) muscle functions during swallowing, respiration, and vocalization. The most-caudal portion of the IPC is believed to be part of the functional upper esophageal sphincter (UES). We hypothesized that the caudal fibers of the human IPC may have enzyme-histochemical characteristics similar to those of the cricopharyngeus muscle, a major component of the UES. In this study, human IPC muscles obtained from autopsy were studied using Sihler's stain to examine innervation patterns, and using myofibrillar ATPase, NADH tetrazolium reductase (NADH-TR), and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) techniques to investigate the distribution and oxidative capacity of the slow- (type I) and fast- (type II) twitch fibers in the muscle. The results showed that the human IPC consists of at least two neuromuscular compartments (NMCs): rostral and caudal. Each of the NMCs was innervated by a separate nerve branch derived from the pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve. The rostral NMC is faster (39% type I, 61% type II) than the caudal NMC (70% type I, 30% type II). In addition, two histochemically-delineated fiber layers were identified in the human IPC: a slow inner layer (SIL) with predominantly type I fibers (66%), and a fast outer layer (FOL) with predominantly type II fibers (62%) (P < 0.01). However, the dimensions of both fiber layers and proportions of the muscle fiber types varied with the NMCs. Specifically, the ratio of the thickness of the SIL to FOL was approximately 2:1 for the caudal NMC and approximately 1:2 for the rostral NMC, respectively. In the SIL the type I fibers accounted for 84% for the caudal NMC and 69% and 44% for the lower and upper portions of the rostral NMC. In contrast, the type II fibers in the FOL accounted for 46% for the caudal NMC and 67% and 74% for the lower and upper portions of the rostral NMC, respectively (P < 0.01). The caudal NMC of the IPC shared histochemical characteristics with the cricopharyngeus muscle, in that it contained predominantly slow oxidative fibers. Overall, the caudal NMC and the SIL in the IPC had high NADH-TR and SDH activities. However, different patterns of oxidative enzyme activity were identified in both type I and type II fibers. This study provided histochemical evidence for the concept that the caudal NMC within the IPC contributes to the functional UES. In addition, the two histochemically-defined fiber layers in the IPC may be a specialized adaptation in humans to enable different upper-airway functions during respiration, swallowing, and speech.The Anatomical Record 12/2001; 264(4):367-77. DOI:10.1002/ar.10020
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ABSTRACT: Cricopharyngeus (CP) muscle spasm can lead to severe dysphagia. Myotomy of the CP muscle was the treatment of choice. Recently, botulinum toxin type A (BtxA) has been used for CP spasm. It usually brings improvement in deglutition but most patients require reinjection in 3-5 months. We report a 35-year-old man who had an arteriovenous malformation hemorrhage in the brain stem resulting in CP spasm and consequently severe dysphagia. He received BtxA injection and deglutition and nutrition remained good one year after treatment. A literature review analyzing 28 patients and our patient showed negative correlations between age and BtxA dose and between age and duration. Efficacy was positively correlated with duration and BtxA dose was positively correlated with pretreatment severity. In conclusion, physicians would use higher doses on patients with more severe cases but use lower doses on older patients. Those who obtained better post-treatment results would enjoy longer effective duration. Thus, the effective duration of the BtxA is multifactorial.Dysphagia 02/2004; 19(1):52-7. DOI:10.1007/s00455-003-0029-3 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mylohyoid (MH) muscle plays a critical role in chewing, swallowing, respiration, and phonation. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the functional properties of the MH are reflected by its intrinsic specializations, including the neural organization, fiber-type distribution, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression. Adult human MH muscles were investigated to determine the nerve supply pattern using Sihler's stain, banding pattern and types of motor endplates using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) staining and silver impregnation, and muscle fiber type and MHC composition using immunocytochemical and immunoblotting techniques. The adult human MH was found to have the following neuromuscular specializations. First, the muscle was innervated by several branches of the MH nerve derived from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. Each of the nerve branches supplied a distinct region of the muscle, forming a segmental innervation pattern. Second, the MH had a single motor endplate band which was located in the middle of the muscle length. Both en plaque and en grappe types of motor endplates were identified on the MH muscle fibers. Finally, the adult human MH fibers expressed unusual MHC isoforms (i.e., slow-tonic, alpha-cardiac, embryonic, and neonatal) which coexisted with the major MHC isoforms (i.e., slow type I, fast type IIa, and fast type IIx), thus forming various major/unusual (or m/u) MHC hybrid fiber types. The m/u hybrid fibers (84% of the total fiber population) were the predominant fiber types in the adult MH muscle. Determination of the neuromuscular specializations of the MH is helpful for better understanding of the muscle functions and for development of strategies to treat MH-related upper airway disorders.Dysphagia 02/2005; 20(3):182-94. DOI:10.1007/s00455-005-0015-z · 1.60 Impact Factor