[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical characteristics, risks, and outcomes in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with zygomycosis in the era of modern immunosuppressive and newer antifungal agent use have not been defined.
In a matched case-controlled study, SOT recipients with zygomycosis were prospectively studied. The primary outcome measure was success (complete or partial response) at 90 days.
Renal failure (odds ratio [OR], 3.17; P = .010), diabetes mellitus (OR, 8.11; P < .001), and prior voriconazole and/or caspofungin use (OR, 4.41; P = .033) were associated with a higher risk of zygomycosis, whereas tacrolimus (OR, 0.23; P = .002) was associated with a lower risk of zygomycosis. Liver transplant recipients were more likely to have disseminated disease (OR, 5.48; P = .021) and developed zygomycosis earlier after transplantation than did other SOT recipients (median, 0.8 vs 5.7 months; P < .001). Overall the treatment success rate was 60%. Renal failure (OR, 11.3; P = .023) and disseminated disease (OR, 14.6; P = .027) were independently predictive of treatment failure, whereas surgical resection was associated with treatment success (OR, 33.3; P = .003). The success rate with liposomal amphotericin B was 4-fold higher even when controlling for the aforementioned variables.
The risks identified for zygomycosis and for disseminated disease, including those that were previously unrecognized, have implications for further elucidating the biologic basis and for optimizing outcomes in SOT recipients with zygomycosis.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2009; 200(6):1002-11. DOI:10.1086/605445 · 5.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhino-orbital-cerebral disease is a significant manifestation of zygomycosis in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. However, its characteristics and outcome are not well addressed.
SOT recipients with zygomycosis as per the European Organization for Research and Treatment in Cancer and the Mycoses Study Group criteria in a cohort study at our centers published previously and those identified with a PubMed search from the 1950s to November 2009 were studied. Patients with mycosis involving the sinuses, orbits, or central nervous system (CNS) were included.
Patients comprised a total of 90 SOT recipients with rhino-orbital-cerebral zygomycosis, including 13 in our cohort and 77 in the literature. CNS disease occurred in 57% (51 of 90). Overall mortality was 52.3% (46 of 88), and the mortality in patients with CNS disease was 73.5% (36 of 49). In logistic regression analysis, older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.21, P=0.002) was associated with a higher mortality rate, whereas lipid formulations of amphotericin B compared with amphotericin B deoxycholate (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02-0.50, P=0.006) and surgery (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.01-0.94, P=0.043) were independently associated with an improved survival even when controlled for CNS involvement and the era of diagnosis of disease.
Rhino-orbital-cerebral zygomycosis, particularly CNS disease, is associated with substantial mortality rate in SOT recipients. Older age is a significant risk factor for mortality, whereas lipid formulations of amphotericin B and surgery improved outcomes.
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