[Bipolar obsessive-compulsive disorder: confirmation of results of the "ABC-OCD" survey in 2 populations of patient members versus non-members of an association].
ABSTRACT Clinical data are largely focused on depressive comorbidity in OCD. However in practice, treating resistant or severe OCD sufferers revealed many cases who seem to have an authentic OCD with a hidden comorbid bipolar disorder. Most reports had evaluated the OCD comorbidity in unipolar and bipolar mood disorders (Kruger et al., 1995; Chen et Dilsaver, 1995). The only investigation in clinical population focused on the reverse issue was conducted in Pisa. Perugi et al. (1997) have showed in a consecutive series of 315 OCD outpatients, that 15.7% presented a bipolar comorbidity, mostly with BP-II disorder. Further analyses suggested that when comorbidity occurs with bipolar and unipolar depression, it has a differential impact on the clinical picture and course of OCD. The rate of bipolar comorbidity in OCD was analyzed in a recent epidemiological survey undertaken by the French Association of patients suffering from OCD (FA-OCD or AFTOC in French). In a sample of 453 OCD patients, 76% had suffered from a major depression, 11% from bipolar disorder (DSM IV mania or hypomania), 30% from hypomania (cases that obtained a score > or = 10 on the self-rated Angst Hypomania Checklist). According to the score > or = 10 on Self-rated Questionnaire for Cyclothymic Temperament, 50% were classified as cyclothymic. The self-assessment of soft-bipolar dimensions, such as hypomania and cyclothymia was previously validated in a multi-site study in major depression (Hantouche et al., 1998). Further analyses showed that comorbidity with soft bipolarity was characterized by significant interactions with high levels of impulsivity, anger attacks and suicidal behavior. In order to confirm these data, another cohort (n = 175 patients treated by psychiatrists for OCD) was formed and named "PSY-OCD". Comparative analyses between the two populations allowed showing very few demographic and clinical differences. The frequency rate of "bipolar OCD" was equivalent in both populations: BP-II disorder (DSM IV criteria) was present in 11% of FA-OCD and 16% of PSY-OCD. Furthermore using the Hypomania Checklist showed that BP-II disorder rate (score > or = 10) was higher: 32% of in both populations. Cyclothymic rate was also globally higher, but significant difference was obtained: 56% of FA-OCD versus 45% of PSY-OCD (p = 0.02). Moreover, mood switching rate under anti-OCD drugs was equivalent in both OCD populations (respectively 38% and 33%, p = ns). In case of BP comorbidity, patients had presented a greater number of concurrent major depressive episodes and suicidal attempts. When concurrent depression was considered, the rate diagnosis of soft bipolarity was 2.5 fold, and the number of suicidal attempts augmented by 7 fold (by comparison versus non-depressed OCD). Despite very early descriptions (since the beginning of the last century) of particular relationships between so-called "psychasthenia, folie de doute, folie raisonnante" and "circular and intermittent madness or cyclothymia", a few attention has been devoted to this complex pattern of comorbidity. The comparative data deriving from the collaborative survey with patients who are members of AFTOC and with a cohort of psychiatric outpatients, confirm the reality of bipolar-OCD comorbidity, which is largely under-recognized in clinical practice. More in depth analyses are now undertaken in order to investigate the characteristics of "bipolar OCD" by comparison to "non bipolar OCD".
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) is often comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In this study, we compared clinical profile and course of subjects with a primary diagnosis of OCD with and without BD. We compared 34 subjects with primary diagnosis of OCD with BD and 57 subjects with a diagnosis of OCD without BD. Structured interview schedules, clinical rating scales, and information from clinical charts were utilized to assess patients. OCD with BD was characterized by: (i) an episodic course; (ii) a higher number of depressive episodes, greater suicidality and a higher rate of hospitalization; (iii) fewer pathological doubts and more miscellaneous compulsions; and (iv) poorer insight into obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Episodic course appears to be typical of OCD with BD. Bipolarity has a pathoplastic effect on OCD and it is possible that some forms of OCD and BD are pathophysiologically related. Bipolar OCD is associated with a higher rate of depressive episodes, higher suicidality and more frequent hospitalizations, suggesting greater morbidity. Long-term prospective follow-up studies and studies addressing pathophysiology and genetic basis are needed to understand the complexity of such comorbidity.Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 08/2011; 65(5):423-33. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe onset of bipolar symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) is a common problem with important prognostic and therapeutic implications. Rates of comorbidity between the two disorders run as high as 30%. The aim of the present study was to explore socio-demographic and clinical differences between OCD patients with and without bipolar disorders to identify predictive factors that can guide treatment choices.Lancet. 01/2011; 30(2):75-82.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Technological leaps in genome sequencing have resulted in a surge in discovery of human disease genes. These discoveries have led to increased clarity on the molecular pathology of disease and have also demonstrated considerable overlap in the genetic roots of human diseases. In light of this large genetic overlap, we tested whether cross-disease research approaches lead to faster, more impactful discoveries. METHODS: We leveraged several gene-disease association databases to calculate a Mutual Citation Score (MCS) for 10,853 pairs of genetically related diseases to measure the frequency of cross-citation between research fields. To assess the importance of cooperative research, we computed an Individual Disease Cooperation Score (ICS) and the average publication rate for each disease. RESULTS: For all disease pairs with one gene in common, we found that the degree of genetic overlap was a poor predictor of cooperation (r2=0.3198) and that the vast majority of disease pairs (89.56%) never cited previous discoveries of the same gene in a different disease, irrespective of the level of genetic similarity between the diseases. A fraction (0.25%) of the pairs demonstrated cross-citation in greater than 5% of their published genetic discoveries and 0.037% cross-referenced discoveries more than 10% of the time. We found strong positive correlations between ICS and publication rate (r2=0.7931), and an even stronger correlation between the publication rate and the number of cross-referenced diseases (r2=0.8585). These results suggested that cross-disease research may have the potential to yield novel discoveries at a faster pace than singular disease research. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the frequency of cross-disease study is low despite the high level of genetic similarity among many human diseases, and that collaborative methods may accelerate and increase the impact of new genetic discoveries. Until we have a better understanding of the taxonomy of human diseases, cross-disease research approaches should become the rule rather than the exception.BMC Medical Genetics 11/2012; 13(1):114. · 2.54 Impact Factor