[Bipolar obsessive-compulsive disorder: confirmation of results of the "ABC-OCD" survey in 2 populations of patient members versus non-members of an association].
ABSTRACT Clinical data are largely focused on depressive comorbidity in OCD. However in practice, treating resistant or severe OCD sufferers revealed many cases who seem to have an authentic OCD with a hidden comorbid bipolar disorder. Most reports had evaluated the OCD comorbidity in unipolar and bipolar mood disorders (Kruger et al., 1995; Chen et Dilsaver, 1995). The only investigation in clinical population focused on the reverse issue was conducted in Pisa. Perugi et al. (1997) have showed in a consecutive series of 315 OCD outpatients, that 15.7% presented a bipolar comorbidity, mostly with BP-II disorder. Further analyses suggested that when comorbidity occurs with bipolar and unipolar depression, it has a differential impact on the clinical picture and course of OCD. The rate of bipolar comorbidity in OCD was analyzed in a recent epidemiological survey undertaken by the French Association of patients suffering from OCD (FA-OCD or AFTOC in French). In a sample of 453 OCD patients, 76% had suffered from a major depression, 11% from bipolar disorder (DSM IV mania or hypomania), 30% from hypomania (cases that obtained a score > or = 10 on the self-rated Angst Hypomania Checklist). According to the score > or = 10 on Self-rated Questionnaire for Cyclothymic Temperament, 50% were classified as cyclothymic. The self-assessment of soft-bipolar dimensions, such as hypomania and cyclothymia was previously validated in a multi-site study in major depression (Hantouche et al., 1998). Further analyses showed that comorbidity with soft bipolarity was characterized by significant interactions with high levels of impulsivity, anger attacks and suicidal behavior. In order to confirm these data, another cohort (n = 175 patients treated by psychiatrists for OCD) was formed and named "PSY-OCD". Comparative analyses between the two populations allowed showing very few demographic and clinical differences. The frequency rate of "bipolar OCD" was equivalent in both populations: BP-II disorder (DSM IV criteria) was present in 11% of FA-OCD and 16% of PSY-OCD. Furthermore using the Hypomania Checklist showed that BP-II disorder rate (score > or = 10) was higher: 32% of in both populations. Cyclothymic rate was also globally higher, but significant difference was obtained: 56% of FA-OCD versus 45% of PSY-OCD (p = 0.02). Moreover, mood switching rate under anti-OCD drugs was equivalent in both OCD populations (respectively 38% and 33%, p = ns). In case of BP comorbidity, patients had presented a greater number of concurrent major depressive episodes and suicidal attempts. When concurrent depression was considered, the rate diagnosis of soft bipolarity was 2.5 fold, and the number of suicidal attempts augmented by 7 fold (by comparison versus non-depressed OCD). Despite very early descriptions (since the beginning of the last century) of particular relationships between so-called "psychasthenia, folie de doute, folie raisonnante" and "circular and intermittent madness or cyclothymia", a few attention has been devoted to this complex pattern of comorbidity. The comparative data deriving from the collaborative survey with patients who are members of AFTOC and with a cohort of psychiatric outpatients, confirm the reality of bipolar-OCD comorbidity, which is largely under-recognized in clinical practice. More in depth analyses are now undertaken in order to investigate the characteristics of "bipolar OCD" by comparison to "non bipolar OCD".
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ABSTRACT: An early recognition of bipolar disorders may have an important impact on the prognosis of this disorder according to different mechanisms. Bipolar disorder is nevertheless not easy to detect, the diagnosis being correctly proposed after, in average more than a couple of Years and three different doctors assessments. A short delay before introducing the relevant treatment should help avoiding inappropriate treatments (prescribing, for example, neuroleptics for long periods, antidepressive drugs each time depressive symptoms occurs, absence of treatment despite mood disorders), with their associated negative impact such as mood-switching, rapid cycling or presence of chronic side-effects stigmates. Furthermore, non-treated mood disorders in bipolar disorder are longer, more stigmatizing and may be associated with an increased risk of suicidal behaviour and mortality. Lastly, compliance, an important factor regarding the long term prognosis of bipolar disorder, should be improved when there is a short delay between correct diagnosis and treatment and onset of the disorder. We therefore propose to review the literature for the different pitfalls involved in the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Non-bipolar mood-disorders are frequently quoted as one of the alternative diagnosis. Hyperthymic temperament, side-effects of prescribed treatments and organic comorbid disorders may be involved. Bipolar disorders have a sex-ratio closer to 1 (men are thus more frequently of the bipolar type in mood-disorders), with earlier age at onset, and more frequent family history of suicidal attempts and bipolar disorder. Schizo-affective disorders are also a major concern regarding the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. This is explained by flat affects sometimes close to anhedonia, presence of a schizoïd personality in bipolar disorder, persecutive hostility that can be considered to be related to irritability rather than a schizophrenic symptom. Rapid cycling, mixed episodes and short euthymia periods may also increase the risk to shift from bipolar to schizophrenia diagnosis. Schizophreniform disorder ("bouffée délirante" aiguë in France) is a frequent form of bipolar disorder onset when major dissociative features are not obvious. The borderline personality is also a problem for the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, some Authors proposing that bipolar disorder is a mood-related personality disorder, sometimes improved by mood-stabilizers. Phasic instead of reactional, weeks and not days-length, clearcut onset and recovery versus non-easy to delimit mood-episodes may help to adjust the diagnosis. Organic disorders may lead to diagnostic confusion, but it is generally proposed that bipolar disorder should be treated the same way, whether or not an organic condition is detected (with special focus on treatment tolerance). Addictive disorders are frequent comorbid conditions in bipolar disorders. Psychostimulants (such as amphetamins or cocaine) intoxications sometimes mimic manic episodes. As these drugs are preferentially chosen by subjects with bipolar disorder, the later diagnosis should be systematically assessed. Puerperal psychosis is a frequent type of onset in female bipolar disorder. The systematic prescription of mood-stabilizers for and after such episode, when mood elation is a major symptom, is generally proposed. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder also has unclear border with bipolar disorder, as a quarter of child hyperactivity may be latterly associated with bipolar disorder. The assessment of mood cycling and their follow-up in adulthood may thus be particularly important. Lastly, presence of some anxious disorders may delay the diagnosis of comorbid bipolar disorder.L Encéphale 01/2004; 30(2):182-93. · 0.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite significant advances in clinical research, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, OCD represents a difficult to treat condition. The French Association of patients suffering from OCD, "AFTOC" is highly concerned by this issue. A new survey was implemented with the aim of exploring Resistant Obsessive Compulsive disorder "ROC". Patients with OCD and members of the "AFTOC" were included in the survey. A self-rated file was elaborated in order to get the maximum of information on the clinical and therapeutic aspects and conditions of OCD. The full version of "TEMPS-A" was also included for assessment of affective temperaments. Statistical analyses were performed for inter-group comparison between "ROC" (resistant OCD) and good responders. Logistic regression analyses with "ROC" method were used to search for independent predictive factors to "ROC". The new survey of "AFTOC", "TOC & ROC" selected a sample of 360 patients, who are members of the association. The rate of "ROC" was 44.2%, 25.3% of Good Responders (GR), and 30.5% in between. Inter-group comparisons ("ROC" versus GR) showed significant higher rates of psychiatric admissions (49% versus 28%), and suicide attempts (26% versus 13%), greater numbers of doctors consulted (5.5 versus. 3.2), compulsions (4.6 versus 3.4), and psychiatric comorbidity (2.8 disorders versus. 2.0; notably agoraphobia, social anxiety and worry about appearance) in the "ROC" group. Assessment by full "TEMPS-A" scale revealed, significantly higher rates of Cyclothymic Temperament (63% versus 43%; p: 0.0003), Depressive Temperament (72% versus 53%; p: 0.004), and Irritable Temperament (21% versus 9%; p: 0.02) in the ROC group. Moreover, the mean global score on each of these temperaments was significantly higher in the "ROC" group. No difference was obtained in the rate or the mean score on the hyperthymic temperament scale. The most predictive factors of "ROC" were represented by "slow continuous course", "worsening under SRI", "worry about appearance", current age above 40 years and psychiatric admission. Our data provides a more precise clinical picture of "ROC", which should be initially explored through baseline severity, compulsive dominance, hoarding, special comorbidity such as recurrent depression, obsession of appearance, agoraphobia, social anxiety, and complex mixture of unstable affective temperament (cyclothymic, irritable, and depressive), and course of illness. Furthermore, vigilance towards the notion of worsening linked to drug therapy, and the increased suicide risk is warranted in the clinical management of "ROC".L Encéphale 12/2008; 34(6):611-7. · 0.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe onset of bipolar symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) is a common problem with important prognostic and therapeutic implications. Rates of comorbidity between the two disorders run as high as 30%. The aim of the present study was to explore socio-demographic and clinical differences between OCD patients with and without bipolar disorders to identify predictive factors that can guide treatment choices.Lancet. 01/2011; 30(2):75-82.