Spider-mite allergy and asthma in fruit growers.
ABSTRACT Asthma and allergic diseases caused by domestic mites such as house dust mites and storage mites are major health problems worldwide. In contrast to domestic mites, spider mites are outdoor phytophagous mites causing significant damage to fruit leaves throughout the world. After several case reports of spider mite-induced asthma and allergy, cross-sectional surveys have demonstrated that spider mites are important allergens in the development of asthma and rhinitis in fruit farmers. Interestingly, epidemiological surveys have also demonstrated that spider mites are common sensitizing allergens that are related to the prevalence of asthma and rhinitis, even in the non-farming population exposed to spider mites. Protein analysis has demonstrated that crude extracts derived from spider mites contain several major allergens, and that N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the major allergens is not homologous with any previously characterized domestic mite allergens, suggesting that major allergens derived from spider mites are unique in terms of cross-reactivity to domestic mites. Taken together, these findings suggest that spider mites are important allergens in the development of asthma among the exposed non-farming population as well as among fruit farmers themselves, and that allergens derived from spider mites may be novel allergens.
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ABSTRACT: This paper highlights a clinical case of a patient suffering bronchial asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis due to sensitization to Tetranychus urticae (TU), commonly known as the red spider mite, which belongs to the Prostigmata sub-order of the Tetranychidae family, in relation to a work environment (a carnation nursery). Both prick and intradermal skin tests were positive, as well as specific bronchial challenge tests with TU extract. Specific IgE was demonstrated by RAST (Class 3). Unspecific bronchial provocation with methacholine was negative. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) immunoblotting revealed the presence of seven main IgE binding proteins, the more intense bands being those appearing at 21, 17 and 15 kDa. This indicates a case of immediated type hypersensitivity to Tetranychus urticae with a clear correlation to occupational environment.Clinical & Experimental Allergy 06/1994; 24(5):477-80. · 4.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Allergy to both house dust and storage mites is well established, but information about other species of mites is scant. One hundred and fifty patients directly exposed to an occupational environment were studied to assess whether spider mites (Tetranychidae) caused their allergic symptoms. We also studied a group of 50 patients from an urban environment, who were not occupationally exposed to spider mites, with a strong sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (RAST class 4). Case history (including questions about work-related symptoms), skin tests, RAST and conjunctival provocation tests were performed in both groups using Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri extracts as allergens. Cross-reactivity between spider mites and D. Pteronyssinus was determined by RAST inhibition. Fifty-four of 150 rural workers were positive to Tetranychidae and in all cases there was an associated sensitization to D. pteronyssinus. All individuals belonging to the urban group were positive to spider mites. RAST inhibition demonstrated a significant cross-reactivity between Tetranychidae and D. pteronyssinus. Five of fifty-four rural workers sensitized to spider mites developed symptoms only when they handled plants or fruits infested with spider mites and they became asymptomatic when exposure ceased. In the rural population studied, 36% of workers were found to be sensitized to spider mites and 10% had symptoms associated with occupational exposure. Since specific IgE antibodies to spider mites could not be detected in the absence of the specific IgE antibodies to D. pteronyssinus, and as all the affected workers were RAST positive to D. pteronyssinus, prior sensitization to house dust mites may be a risk factor for occupational allergy to spider mites.Clinical & Experimental Allergy 12/1996; 26(11):1262-7. · 4.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In most epidemiological survey studies, only subjective symptoms and past medical history of asthma have been used as diagnostic criteria. Even though a questionnaire survey can be performed in a large population study at low cost, limitations such as lack of objectivity and poor predictability in non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness cannot be avoided. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of current asthma based on questionnaires and methacholine bronchial provocation test, and the prevalence of atopy in Korea. We performed modified ATS respiratory questionnaires and allergen skin-prick test with 10 common inhalant allergens among 3219 subjects aged 7-19 years in Seoul and a rural part of a small city, Chungju in Korea. Methacholine bronchial provocation tests were also performed among those who had asthma symptoms according to the questionnaire. The criteria of asthma was presence of both asthma symptoms and non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Atopy was defined as when an allergen induced weal size is same or larger than that caused by histamine. The prevalence of asthma based on questionnaires and methacholine bronchial provocation tests was 4.6%, while the prevalence of wheeze was 8.2% and 19.3% of total population complained of one or more respiratory symptoms related to asthma on the questionnaires. There was no significant difference according to age, sex and living area. The mean prevalence of atopy was 35.0% and the most common allergens were Dermatophagoides farinae (30.9%), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (27.5%), cat fur (20.4%) and cockroach (11.8%). The atopy prevalence in Chungju area was higher than that in Seoul and males showed a higher prevalence than females. The asthma prevalence was higher among atopics (6.8%) than among non-atopics (2.7%). None of questionnaire items were enough to predict the presence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in terms of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value. The prevalence rate of current asthma in Korea was 4.6% and the prevalence rate of atopy in Korea was 35.0%. Questionnaire-based surveys are not enough to predict the actual prevalence of asthma.Clinical & Experimental Allergy 08/1997; 27(7):761-8. · 4.79 Impact Factor